KAJIAN DAMPAK PERKEMBANGAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONDISI LAHAN DI KAWASAN BAWEN KABUPATEN SEMARANG

Irianta , Gunarsa (2008) KAJIAN DAMPAK PERKEMBANGAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONDISI LAHAN DI KAWASAN BAWEN KABUPATEN SEMARANG. Masters thesis, Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Land usage must be accommodated with their capacity, because land has a limitation. This limitation can be seen from land ability such as land slope, land texture, drainage, effective deepness, erosion, physiographic, geology, and type of land (BPN, 1996;19). Other consideration is because land as a part of quantity, unity in location, and tend to degradation in development service. A lot of industry was developed in Bawen Area because the existence of infrastructures which most supporting in industry activity. The existence of interest usage area which more dominantly than the consideration to the land capacity, it can be happen land usage exceeded to their ability. So, it was affecting in the form of land degradation that is the degradation of land physical quality in consequence of the existence of inappropriate land usage with land physical condition. The objective of this research is to studying the impact of industry growth to land condition change with target such as: identifying land capacity for industry, identifying the impact of land condition as affected the existence of industry activity growth and giving direction to the developed industry in order to according to their land capacity characteristic. The change of land usage for industry was using the SIG method for assist in mapping area usage. Scoring method is a data analyze technique by make a value under the existing condition, and arranged according to rank that it have been determined previously. To evaluate impact to land capacity is by using Leopold interaction matrix method. It was used for analyze impact of land at the developed activity industry, and giving information of causality and influencing an activity, and also it can shows result quantitatively, and for communicate the result. Condition before and after industry activity was happened condition change for Segment I Harjosari equal to 19.61% or scale 1 its impact very little, at Segment II Bawen equal to 7.05% or scale 1 its impact very little, and at Segment III Asinan equal to 0.38% or scale 1 its impact very little (0 – 20%). The most significant impact to area condition change can be categorized 3 (three) stages: first pre-activity of industry, initial condition of land surface is hilly then it is need to drawing up this area, this is impacted on area slope and height, material transportation for plant construction through the village road, it activity cause the road become break and holes. Second, industry activity stage (production), the number of industry building, structures and infrastructures which was developed make the water absorption area was decreased, industry needs water and take it from artetis well, so the water reserve decreased and the resident well become dry in dry season. The existence of worker activity causes traffic jam at shift time. Transportation of raw material and production make the road was swelling. Noise was increased because plant activity and air pollution from combustion. Third, after production stage, there is an industry liquid waste, although industry has develop a waste treatment installation but there are still the industry that throwing away waste neglectlessly to the dismissal channel. Its consequence, there are a reek material from the industry waste disposal. Segment I Harjosari more dominated by large industry from 10 of existing industry, 9 of them are the large scale industry such as textile, beverage, pasteboard and paper and only one the small scale industry that is the chemical industry (CO2). Harjosari become the developed location because it has been supported by several items that are high area supporting, near to downtown, near to industry location which developed before that is Karangjati and Bergas, structure and infrastructure such as transportation, power, fresh water, fuel, and so on. Area and environment is very wide and supporting climate and there are many workers in location. The exploiting of Bawen area was suggested for the industry growth and transportation. by several consideration, therefore, suggested to develop for industry activity as priority I: Zone I Harjosari – Lemah Ireng that own the high land capacity and there is the empty zone and also agree to displacement area as industry zone, priority II: Zone III Asinan has the moderate land capacity and not yet many industry location and priority III: Zone II Bawen has the low land capacity because its location has a lot of resident settlement so that less to be suggested to industry land developed zone. Penggunaan lahan harus disesuaikan dengan daya dukungnya, karena lahan memiliki keterbatasan. Keterbatasan dapat dilihat dari kemampuan lahan antara lain kemiringan lahan, tekstur tanah, drainase, kedalaman efektif, erosi, fisiografi, geologi, dan jenis tanah (BPN, 1996:19). Pertimbangan lain karena lahan sebagai bagian dari ruang mempunyai sifat terbatas dalam kuantitas, dan cenderung mengalami penurunan dalam melayani tuntutan pembangunan. Adanya kepentingan pemanfaatan lahan yang lebih dominan daripada daya dukungnya, dapat terjadi penggunaan lahan yang melampaui kemampuannya. Sehingga dampak yang terjadi berupa degradasi lahan yaitu penurunan kualitas fisik lahan sebagai akibat adanya penggunaan lahan tidak sesuai dengan kondisi fisik lahannya. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji dampak perkembangan industri terhadap perubahan kondisi lahan dengan sasaran: mengidentifikasi daya dukung lahan, dampak kondisi lahan akibat adanya perkembangan aktivitas industri. Perubahan penggunaan lahan industri menggunakan analisis metoda SIG untuk membantu dalam penggambaran peta penggunaan lahan. Metode pembobotan (skoring) untuk menganalisis data dengan membuat suatu nilai terhadap keadaan yang ada. Untuk mengevaluasi dampak yang terjadi terhadap daya dukung lahan digunakan metode matriks interaksi Leopold, yang dapat memberi informasi hubungan sebab dan pengaruh kegiatan. Kondisi sebelum dan setelah aktivitas industri terjadi perubahan kondisi untuk Segmen I Harjosari sebesar 19.61%, pada Segmen II Bawen sebesar 7.05% dan Segmen III Asinan sebesar 0.38%, semua termasuk dalam skala 1 dampaknya sangat kecil (0- 20%). Dampak yang paling berpengaruh terhadap perubahan kondisi diantaranya adalah pertama pra aktivitas industri, kondisi awal permukaan tanah bergelombang/berbukit sehingga perlu pematangan lahan, ini berdampak pada kemiringan dan ketinggian lahan, angkutan material untuk konstruksi pabrik yang melewati jalan desa membuat jalan bergelombang, retak sehingga rusak. Kedua tahap aktivitas industri (produksi), banyaknya bangunan industri dan sarana prasarana yang dibangun membuat daerah resapan air/tangkapan air berkurang, industri membutuhkan air bersih dan mengambil dari sumur artetis, maka cadangan air tanah berkurang dan berdampak terhadap sumur penduduk menjadi kering pada musim kemarau. Adanya kegiatan para karyawan keluar dan masuk ke industri, menyeberang jalan, kendaraan umum yang parkir, menyebabkan kemacetan lalu lintas pada jam-jam pergantian waktu kerja. Aktivitas pengangkutan bahan baku dan hasil produksi dari dan ke industri dengan truk container yang bertonase besar membuat jalan menjadi bergelombang ini terjadi di daerah turunan dan tanjakan jalan. Segmen I Harjosari lebih didominasi oleh industri besar dari 10 buah industri yang ada, 9 buah diantaranya industri berskala besar terdiri dari tekstil, minuman ringan, karton dan kertas dan hanya satu industri berskala kecil yaitu gas CO2. Harjosari menjadi lokasi pengembangan industri karena didukung beberapa hal seperti: daya dukung lahan yang tinggi, dan kedekatannya dengan lokasi industri yang sudah berkembang terlebih dahulu yaitu di Karangjati dan Bergas. Maka arahan pengembangan untuk aktivitas industri sebagai prioritas I: Zona I Harjosari-Lemah Ireng daya dukung lahan tinggi dan tersedianya lahan kosong serta sangat sesuai untuk dialihfungsikan sebagai lahan industri, prioritas II: Zona III Asinan daya dukung lahan sedang dan belum banyak terdapat lokasi industri, prioritas III: Zona II Bawen daya dukung lahannya rendah karena sudah banyak lahan permukiman.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Urban and Regional Planning
ID Code:17298
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 1
Deposited On:22 Jul 2010 14:47
Last Modified:21 Jun 2011 16:37

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