Peer Review : SENI SEBAGAI MEDIA PROPAGANDA PADA MASA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG DI JAWA (1942-1945)

Dewi Yuliati, Dr., M.A. and Dhanang Respati , Puguh and Mahendra, Pudji Utama Peer Review : SENI SEBAGAI MEDIA PROPAGANDA PADA MASA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG DI JAWA (1942-1945). FIB UNDIP.

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Abstract

The research was conducted to describe the role of art as the Japanese propaganda media in Java during its occupation (1942-1945). The method employed for this study was the historical method, one that explores, finds, and examines sources to obtain authentic and reliable historical facts. The facts found in this research were still fragmentary and then they were constructed into a systematic, unified, logic, chronological , and communicative historical narration based on fundamental questions, namely "what", "who", "where", "when", "how", "why", and "what became of them". It was revealed from this study that there were several important factors which caused the existence of the Japanese military administration in Indonesia. On the one hand, the Japanese fascist ideology, especially Hakko Itjiu en the Imperial Way, showed that the Japanese will dominate the world under its control. For the Japanese, Indonesia had a strategic position geographically, economically, and politically to support its war interest against the western colonialism which, at that time, were still spread in Asia. On the other hand the Indonesian people, who had been in the Dutch colonialism power, were one of the acceleration factors in the making of the Japanese authority in this land. By using the people condition to desire to be free from the Dutch colonialism, the Japanese prepared propaganda systematically and intensively to influence the Javanese to support the military administration to become the winner in the war against the allies. Propaganda systems were prepared solidly from the central to the locals administration. Institutions, methods, substances, spirits, and packages of the propaganda were the integrated system which could not be separated, because they were strictly controlled by laws which tied the freedom of communications. There were many propaganda substances which were packed in the forms of art, especially poetry, prose, song, film, and theatre. This could easily be understood, because art with its entertaining values could eliminate the people awareness that they were indoctrinated. To pack the arts as propaganda media, the Japanese military government recruited the Indonesian poets, artists which included man of letters, musicians, composers, films and theatres scenario writers, and painters. To make this art packages, they often could spread the nationalism spirit, although they should be carefully. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menjelaskan peranan kesenian sebagai media propaganda Jepang di Jawa selama masa pendudukannya (1942-1945). Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode sejarah yaitu mencari, menemukan, dan menguji sumber-sumber sejarah untuk memperoleh fakta-fakta yang otentik dan dapat dipercaya. Dalam penelitian fakta-fakta yang ditemukan masih bersifat fragmentaris. Dengan berdasar pada pertanyaan-pertanyaan "apa", "siapa", "di mana", "kapan", "bagaimana", "mengapa" dan "apa jadinya", fakta¬fakta tersebut disusun dalam kisah sejarah yang sistematis, kronologis, logis, terpadu, dan komunikatif Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada beberapa faktor pendorong kehadiran kekuasaan militer Jepang di negeri ini. Di satu sisi, ideologi fascist Jepang, Haklw ltjiu dan the Imperial Way, telah menunjukkan bahwa Jepang ingin menguasai seluruh penjuru dunia di bawah kepemimpinannya. Bagi Jepang, Indonesia memiliki posisi geografis, ekonomis, dan politis yang strategis untuk mendukung kepentingan perangnya melawan kolonialisme Barat yang ketika itu masih meluas di Asia. Di sisi lain, rakyat Indonesia, yang ketika itu masih dalam belenggu penjajahan Belanda, menjadi salah satu faktor akselerasi terbentuknya kekuasaan militer Jepang di wilayah ini. Dengan memanfaatkan kondisi rakyat yang ingin segera terbebas dari penindasan kekuasaan Belanda itu, Jepang mempersiapkan propaganda secara sistimatis dan intensif agar dapat membantu Jepang untuk memenangkan perang melawan sekutu. Sistem propaganda Jepang dipersiapkan seen solid dan tingkat pemerintahan pusat sampai ke daerah-daerah. Lembaga-lembaga, metode, materi, spirit, dan kemasan materi propaganda merupakan jaringan integral yang sulit untuk dipisahkan, karena semua itu dikontrol secara ketat dengan undang-undang yang sangat mengikat kebebasan anus komunikasi di negeri ini. Banyak materi propaganda dikemas dalam bentuk kesenian, terutama puisi, prosa, nyanyian, film, dan sandiwara. Hal itu dapat dipahami, karena kesenian dengan nilai entertaining-nya dapat mengurangi kesadaran khalayak bahwa mereka telah diindoktrinasi. Untuk mengemas kesenian sebagai media propaganda, pemerintah militer Jepang merekrut seniman Indonesia sebagai staf Keimin Bunka Shidosho (Pusat Kebudayaan). Mereka terdiri dari sastrawan, komposer, penulis skenario film dan sandiwara, serta pelukis. Dalam pengemasan seni sebagai media propaganda, mereka sering dapat menyelipkan spirit nasionalisme, walaupun dengan sangat hati-hati.

Item Type:Other
Subjects:D History General and Old World > D History (General)
Divisions:Faculty of Humanities > Department of History
ID Code:71947
Deposited By:mrs ilmu sejarah
Deposited On:24 Apr 2019 16:31
Last Modified:24 Apr 2019 16:31

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