EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN PUPUK ORGANIK UNTUK REMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT LAHAN PERTANIAN DI DESA SRUWEN KECAMATAN TENGARAN KABUPATEN SEMARANG

HINDARWATI, Yulis and Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih and Sudarno, Sudarno (2018) EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN PUPUK ORGANIK UNTUK REMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT LAHAN PERTANIAN DI DESA SRUWEN KECAMATAN TENGARAN KABUPATEN SEMARANG. Masters thesis, School of Postgraduate.

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Abstract

Logam berat merupakan salah satu problem pencemaran di ekosistem pertanian yang harus mendapatkan perhatian dalam penanganannya. Logam berat yang ada pada tanah akan terserap pada tanaman terutama tanaman padi. Konsentrasi logam berat yang tinggi di tanah berdampak pada peningkatan residu logam berat yang terakumulasi dalam gabah dan pada gilirannya akan berpengaruh terhadap kesehatan manusia yang mengkonsumsinya. Disisi lain, melimpahnya limbah pertanian (jerami) dan peternakan (kotoran ternak) di Desa Sruwen merupakan sumberdaya yang dapat dioptimalkan pemanfaatannya. Pemanfaatan limbah tersebut merupakan salah satu alternatif teknologi remediasi yang efisien pada lahan tercemar untuk meningkatkan kualitas pangan yang rendah logam berat hingga didapat produk yang higienis. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengkaji efisiensi penggunaan pupuk organik untuk remediasi logam berat pada lahan pertanian di Desa Sruwen Kecamatan Tengaran Kabupaten Semarang. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Pebruari 2017 - Desember 2017 di Desa Sruwen Kecamatan Tengaran Kabupaten Semarang. Rancangan Acak Kelompok Lengkap (RAKL) digunakan sebagai rancangan penelitian ini, yang terdapat 10 perlakuan dengan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari: Kontrol (tanpa perlakuan), Jerami Segar, Jerami Melapuk, Kompos Jerami, Pupuk NPK (Urea, SP-36, dan KCl), NPK + Jerami Segar, NPK + Jerami Melapuk, NPK + Kompos Jerami, NPK + Pupuk Kandang, dan Pupuk Kandang. Ketiga ulangan yaitu: Sawah Atas (SA), Sawah Tengah (ST), dan Sawah Bawah (SB) pada ketinggian 696 m dpl, 690 m dpl, dan 688 m dpl. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada lahan pertanian di Desa Sruwen mengandung logam berat Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ yaitu 27,06 mg/kg; 1,72 mg/kg; 38,20 mg/kg yang masih di bawah ambang batas baku mutu tanah menurut FAO/WHO, dan hanya terdapat logam berat Pb2+ yaitu 0,01 ppm pada sumber air pengairan yang juga masih di bawah ambang batas menurut PP. No. 82 tahun 2001. Penggunaan pupuk organik yang paling efisien dalam meremediasi logam berat Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ pada lahan pertanian yaitu pupuk kandang dengan persentase 84,5 % ; 77,5 % ; 93,2 %. Logam berat Pb2+, Cd2+, dan Cu2+ diindikasikan dengan Bio Accumulation Factor (BAF). Pb2+, Cd2+, dan Cu2+ pada gabah berturut turut adalah 1,38 ppm ; 1,72 ppm ; dan 0,11 ppm. Produktivitas padi (GKG) tertinggi sebesar 2,41 ton/ha; 2,2 ton/ha; 3,5 ton/ha menggunakan Pupuk Kandang, NPK, dan NPK+Kompos Jerami, meskipun masih di bawah standar deskripsi varietas Ciherang. Kata kunci: logam berat, pemupukan, lahan pertanian, Sruwen Semarang Heavy metals is one of the pollution problems in the agricultural ecosystem. Heavy metals in the soil will be absorbed by plants especially paddy. High concentrations of heavy metals in the soil have an impact on increasing heavy metal residues which accumulate in the paddy and in turn will affect the health of humans who consume them. On the other hand the abundance of agricultural waste (straw) and livestock (livestock manure) in Sruwen Village are resources that can be optimized for its utilization. Utilization of those wastes are an alternative efficient remediation technology on polluted land to improve low quality food in heavy metals to obtain hygienic products. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficiency of using organic fertilizer for heavy metals remediation on agricultural land in Sruwen Village, Tengaran District, Semarang Regency. The study was conducted in February 2017 - December 2017 in Sruwen Village. Research using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was designed in this research . There were 10 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of: Control (without treatment), Fresh Straw, Weathered Straw, Straw Compost , NPK Fertilizer (Urea, SP-36, and KCl), NPK + Fresh Straw, NPK + Decaying Straw, NPK + Straw Compost, NPK + Fertilizer cages, and manure. The three replications are: Upper Field (SA), Middle Field (ST), and Below Field (SB) at an altitude of 696 meter above sea level (m asl), 690 m asl, and 688 m asl. The results showed that the agricultural land in Sruwen Village contained heavy metals of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ with the concentration which were 27.06 mg/kg; 1.72 mg/kg; 38.20 mg/kg which was on still below the threshold of soil quality standards by FAO / WHO, and there was only heavy metal Pb2+ which was 0.01 ppm at the source of irrigation water which is also still below the threshold according to Government Regulations: 82 of 2001. The most efficient use of organic fertilizers in remediating heavy metals of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ on agricultural land is manure with percentages of 84.5%; 77.5%; 93.2%. Heavy metals Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ of respectively by Bio Accumulation Factor (BAF). Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ in the paddy were 1.38 ppm; 1.72 ppm; and 0.11 ppm. The highest paddy productivity (GKG) was 2.41 tons/ha; 2.2 tons/ha; 3.5 tons/ha using Manure, NPK, NPK+Straw Compost, although it was still below the standard description of Ciherang variety. Keywords: heavy metals, fertilizing, agricultural land, Sruwen Semarang.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Divisions:School of Postgraduate > Master Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:71883
Deposited By:Mrs Ekana Perpus Pasca
Deposited On:22 Apr 2019 15:11
Last Modified:22 Apr 2019 15:11

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