CONSEQUENCES OF MERCURY USED IN ARTISANAL AND SMALL-SCALE GOLD MINING PROCESSES A CASE STUDY OF RIVER NILE STATE SUDAN

ALI AHMED, Ali Muddathir and Purwanto, Purwanto and Sunoko, Henna Rya (2019) CONSEQUENCES OF MERCURY USED IN ARTISANAL AND SMALL-SCALE GOLD MINING PROCESSES A CASE STUDY OF RIVER NILE STATE SUDAN. PhD thesis, School of Postgraduate.

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Abstract

On the discovery of gold reserves in 14 states in Sudan, traditional gold mining suddenly started to flourish and hundreds of thousands of laymen became engaged in gold extraction. The use of mercury in gold extraction poses much threat to the environment and general health of miners and the surrounding areas. The investigation includes: The effects of extraction methods on the environment and general health, The level of education and its distribution within the miners and how it affected the awareness of the miners about the dangers of mining activities, The period of stay that miners spend in the mining area and its contribution on the awareness about the dangers and diseases inflicted on the miners, The effects of traditional gold mining activities on natural environmental and The effects of the meteorological and topographical factors, the distribution and concentration of mercury in the area and their effects on the environment and general health. The research adopted the techniques of using random sampling and quantitative qualitative in addition to the analytical techniques. The research finally concluded that the mercury has potential to distribution and transport from study area to neighboring places by two meteorological and topographical factors, the wind directions and speed, those two meteorological elements affect the transport of pollutants from the highest to the lowest boundary layers. The area is characterized by high temperatures during most of year for ten months (50c) and low temperatures during winter months to (5c). Mercury starts to evaporate at temperature exceeding (25c). hence areas of higher temperatures are subjected to higher mercury concentration than other area of low temperatures. The study area is located at a height of (372 meters) above sea level, and that the River Nile to the West is located at an altitude of (340 meters), Topographically contour lines retreat towards in the River Nile, the fact which means that the surface run-off water will flow towards in River Nile and carry mercury concentration because of the natural slope of the area. But a portion of the Western area slopes towards the residents within the surrounding communities. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining has positive effects on the economic side and negative effects on the environment and general health. Keywords: artisanal and small-scale gold mining, Workers occupationally exposed (WOE), Residents in surrounding communities (RSC), Distribution of mercury concentration in surface soil and surface water, Meteorological and topographical factors.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions:School of Postgraduate > Doctor Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:69897
Deposited By:Mrs Ekana Perpus Pasca
Deposited On:25 Feb 2019 15:04
Last Modified:25 Feb 2019 15:04

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