KESESUAIAN DAN KINERJA TANAMAN KEHUTANAN SEBAGAI FITOREMEDIATOR LOGAM PADA LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG BATUBARA

AYUB, Selly Oktashariany and Widianarko, Budi and Izzati, Munifatul (2015) KESESUAIAN DAN KINERJA TANAMAN KEHUTANAN SEBAGAI FITOREMEDIATOR LOGAM PADA LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG BATUBARA. PhD thesis, Program of Postgraduate.

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Abstract

Pertambangan batubara memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap lingkungan, seperti banjir, erosi, serta kontaminasi logam di dalam air, tanah dan udara. Oleh karena itu diperlukan teknologi yang mampu mengurangi pencemaran air dan tanah serta mengurangi erosi dan menambah penutupan lahan melalui fitoremediasi menggunakan tanaman kehutanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) mengidentifikasi kandungan logam serta sifat fisik dan kimia tanah di lahan bekas tambang batubara; (2) mengidentifikasi dominansi dan diversitas jenis tanaman Kehutanan di lahan bekas tambang batubara; (3) menganalisa kesesuaian jenis tanaman kehutanan yang ditemukan di lahan bekas tambang batubara dalam mengakumulasi logam; dan (4) mengevaluasi kinerja fitoremediasi jenis tanaman Kehutanan berdasarkan toksisitas logam dan translokasinya. Orisinalitas penelitian ini terletak pada kombinasi antara analisis vegetasi dengan eksperiment fitotoksisitas logam untuk menghasilkan desain rehabilitasi lahan bekas tambang batubara berbasis fitoremediasi. Tahap kesesuaian vegetasi sebagai fitoremediator logam dilakukan melalui analisis tanah meliputi sifat fisik-kimia dan kandungan logam di tanaman dan tanah untuk menyeleksi jenis logam dan tanaman remediator. Selanjutnya, pada tahap Kinerja Fitoremediator dilakukan pula analisis kinerja tanaman remediator melalui paparan Zn, Ni dan Cd selama 3, 4, dan 5 bulan. Analisis data mencakup statistik deskriptive, uji hipotesis (Anova), Kurva fitting (Kurva Gompertz) dan statistik non parametrik. Lahan bekas tambang batubara mengandung As, Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Pb, Ni dan Zn yang lebih tinggi tetapi hanya Cd, Ni dan Zn melebihi standar kualitas tanah di beberapa negara serta memiliki sifat fisik-kimia tanah yang tidak baik untuk kesuburan tanah. Lahan bekas tambang batubara memiliki keragaman vegetasi jenis kehutanan yang homogen dengan dominansi terdapat pada Acacia mangium Willd (Mangium), Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. (Jabon) dan Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.(Trembesi). Kesesuaian vegetasi yang dominan sebagai fitoremediator Zn, Ni dan Cd secara berurutan adalah A. mangium (Mangium) diikuti oleh A. cadamba (Jabon) dan S. saman (Trembesi). Kinerja tanaman sebagai fitoremediator berdasarkan pada pertumbuhan tinggi dan biomasa fitoremediator, kemampuan akumulasi logam di dalam organ, pengurangan logam di dalam tanah, muatan logam di dalam tanaman, efisiensi fitoremediasi serta pengurangan ketersediaan fraksi logam di dalam tanah adalah hanya A. mangium (Mangium) memiliki kinerja sebagai fitoremediator Seng, sementara tanaman yang memiliki kinerja terbesar sebagai fitoremediator Nikel secara berurutan adalah S. saman (Trembesi) yand diikuti oleh A. mangium (Mangium). Kinerja terbesar sebagai fitoremediator Kadmium secara berurutan terdapat pada A. cadamba (Jabon) yang diikuti oleh S. saman (Trembesi) dan A. mangium (Mangium). Fitoremediator Seng dan Kadmium yang memiliki kinerja untuk meningkatkan pH tanah adalah A. mangium (Mangium). Desain rehabilitasi lahan bekas tambang batubara harus mencakup desain fitoremediasi dengan melakukan pemilihan jenis tanaman yang berdasarkan pada kondisi fisik-kimia tanah, jenis kontaminan, dominansi dan diversitas vegetasi yang ada di sekitar lahan serta kesesuaian dan kinerja tanaman tersebut. Kata kunci: fitoremediasi, Zn, Ni, Cd, Acacia mangium, Samanea saman, Anthocephalus cadamba, dominansi vegetasi Kehutanan, kesesuaian fitoremediator, kinerja fitoremediator, lahan bekas tambang batubara Coal mining has negative impacts on the environment, such as flood, erosion and metal contamination in water, soil and air. Therefore, a technology such phytoremediation using forest plant species to remove the metals, as well as to reduce the flood and erosion is needed. Phytoremediation is a method to reduce and to remove contaminant from soil, water and air. The objectives of this research were (1) to identify metal content as well as to analyze soil physicochemical in a post mining area; (2) to analyze the dominancy and diversity of forest plant species growth on a post mining area; (3) to analyze suitability of forest plant species growth on a post mining soil in accumulating metal; (4) to evaluate and to analyze phytoremediation performance of forest plant species concerning metal toxicity and translocation. The originality of this research lies on the combination between vegetation analysis and metal phytotoxicity experiment to produce a design of post coal mining land rehabilitation based on phytoremediation . Soil analysis regarding physico-chemical properties and measurement of metal content in plants and soil as well as Vegetation analysis concerning dominancy and diversity, in order to select metal type and plant species were done. Analysis of phytoremediator performance to accumulate Zn, Ni, and Cd was conducted through contamination of Zn, Ni and Cd for 3, 4, dan 5 months The data analysis include descriptive statistic, test of Hypothesis (Anova), Curve Fitting (Gompertz Curve) and non parametric statistic Soils from post coal mining sites contain elevated level of As, Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb, Ni and Zn, but only Zn at 784 mg/kg, Ni at 119 mg/kg and Cd at 2.61 mg/kg exceed soil quality standard. It also does not support soil fertility. A post coal mining land had homogenous forest species vegetation with dominant vegetation belong to Acacia mangium Willd (Mangium), Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. (Jabon) and Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.(Trembesi). The suitability of dominant vegetations as Zn, Ni and Cd phytoremediator respectively belong to A. mangium (Mangium), then A. cadamba (Jabon) and S. saman (Trembesi). Plant performance as phytoremediator was analyzed based on plant height and biomas, capability to accumulate metal in the organ, metal reduction in soil, total load of metal in plant, phytoremediation efficiency as well as reduction of metal fraction availability in soil and soil pH. Mangium was the only phytoremediator for Zn; meanwhile, the best plant performance as phytoremediator for Ni was Trembesi followed by Mangium. The best plant performance as phytoremediator for Cd belongs to A. cadamba (Jabon) then S. saman (Trembesi) and A. mangium (Mangium). However, Mangium was the only phytoremediator for Zn and Cd that increased soil pH. Design of rehabilitation on post coal mining site should include phytoremediation design by performing plant species selection based on soil physico-chemical properties, contaminant type, dominancy and diversity of vegetation as well as plant suitability and plant performance as phytoremediator. Keywords: phytoremediation, Zn, Ni, Cd, Acacia mangium, Samanea saman, Anthocephalus cadamba, forest plant species, dominancy, diversity, phytoremediator suitability, phytoremediator performance, post coal mining land

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:S Agriculture > SD Forestry
Divisions:School of Postgraduate > Doctor Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:66352
Deposited By:Mrs Ekana Perpus Pasca
Deposited On:12 Nov 2018 09:27
Last Modified:12 Nov 2018 09:27

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