EFISIENSI PENURUNAN BAHAN PENCEMAR LIMBAH LINDI MENGGUNAKAN TANAMAN Typha angustifolia L DAN MEDIA PASIR PADA LAHAN BASAH BUATAN

NURAJI, Sugeng and Anggoro, Sutrisno and Sunoko, Henna Rya and Hendrarto, Boedi (2016) EFISIENSI PENURUNAN BAHAN PENCEMAR LIMBAH LINDI MENGGUNAKAN TANAMAN Typha angustifolia L DAN MEDIA PASIR PADA LAHAN BASAH BUATAN. PhD thesis, Programme of Postgraduate.

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Abstract

Isu tentang limpasan limbah lindi (leachate landfill) ke dalam badan air dan lingkungan adalah isu penting. Kandungan limpasan leachate landfill di Indonesia yang telah dikaji menyebabkan dampak negatif yang membahayakan. Isu terkini yang penting untuk dikaji lebih lanjut, yaitu tercemarnya kawasan lahan basah sekitar industri di Kecamatan Genuk Terboyo kota Semarang oleh limpasan limbah lindi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh, pengaruh interaksi, perbedaan dan korelasi antara densitas tanaman Typha angustifolia L dengan ketebalan media pasir terhadap penurunan kandungan bahan pencemar limbah lindi, dan implikasi CWs sebagai metode bentuk rekayasa teknis. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan split plot design skala laboratorium. Sampel lindi berasal dari limpasan limbah lindi di kawasan lahan basah Terboyo Genuk. Uji statistik menggunakan analisis variansi dua faktor atau lebih, dan pairwise comparison. Karakteristik media pasir yang digunakan ES pada D 60/10= 0,08—1,04 mm; UC pada level 3,102. Rerata debit lindi influent 0,10 m3/hari. Jumlah perlakuan 36 unit CWs dan 12 kontrol dengan 4 kali replikasi. Pengamatan effluent di CWs menggunakan split plot in time mengacu ke HDT 7, 9, 11, dan 13 hari. Analisis data menggunakan model aditif linier dengan Anova untuk mengkaji pengaruh, interaksi densitas tanaman dan ketebalan media pasir terhadap effluent CWs, sedangkan anova two-tail (p < 0,05) untuk mengkaji uji beda dan korelasi Pb pada lokasi yang berbeda. Analisis data menggunakan program IBM-SPSS (taraf kepercayaan 95 %) Statistik 20, (IBM Corporation 1989, 2011). Hasil determinasi spesies T.angustifolia L merupakan tanaman yang layak pada lahan basah tercemar. Tanaman Typha dominan dipilih dalam pengolahan berbagai jenis limbah pada level 96,429 % dari kajian penelitian terkait. Media pasir merupakan komponen penting dalam proses filtrasi, selain itu sebagai salah satu media yang digunakan untuk sistem mikro dalam penurunan turbidity, meningkatkan DO, serta kombinasi beberapa proses seperti sedimentasi, adsorpsi, dan aktivitas biologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penurunan TDS tidak dipengaruhi oleh densitas tanaman T.angustifolia L dan ketebalan media pasir. Penurunan TDS tertinggi pada media pasir 50 cm terjadi pada densitas tanaman rendah dengan waktu antara 11—13 hari. Penurunan BOD dipengaruhi secara signifikan oleh densitas tanaman dan ketebalan media pasir 55 cm yang berlangsung pada densitas sedang dengan waktu 7 hari. Penurunan COD dipengaruhi secara signifikan oleh densitas tanaman, namun tidak dipengaruhi ketebalan media pasir. Penurunan COD terjadi pada ketebalan media pasir 55 cm serta densitas sedang dengan waktu terendah 9 hari dan tertinggi 11 hari. Penurunan BOD berinteraksi secara signifikan dengan densitas tanaman dan media pasir atau sebaliknya, tetapi tidak berinteraksi terhadap penurunan TDS dan COD. Adanya perbedaan secara signifikan dan korelasi positif antara Pb di media pasir, akar, daun, influent, dan effluent. Rerata penyerapan Pb di akar T.angustifolia L antara 2—7 kali lebih besar daripada di daun dan media pasir. Rerata bioakumulasi Pb tertinggi pada densitas rendah pada level 4,150. Rerata Pb di: akar > media pasir > daun > influent > effluent. Penurunan TDS dengan efisiensi sedang antara 49,59—75,55 %. Penurunan BOD dengan efisiensi tinggi antara 96,06—99,277 %. Penurunan COD dengan efisiensi tinggi antara 90,97—96,66 %. Penurunan logam Pb dengan efisiensi tinggi antara 82,74—98,69 %. Implikasi CWs sistem upflow dapat disesuaikan dengan standar baku mutu effluent dan kondisi luas lahan di lapangan. Luas lahan cenderung ke samping dapat menerapkan metode CWs dengan alur proses bentuk seri ke samping, dan jika luas lahan lebih sempit cenderung memanjang ke depan dapat menerapkan metode CWs dengan alur proses paralel atau tunggal memanjang. Kata kunci:lahan basah buatan, lindi, media pasir, efisiensi penurunan, densitas T.angutifolia L. Leachate landfill waste overflow into water body and the environment is an important issue. Analyses suggests that leachate landfill level in Indonesia has resulted in harmful negative impacts. The most recent issue that needs further analysis is the contamination of wetland surrounding industrial parks in Genuk, Terboyo-Semarang by leachate landfill overflow. The objective of this research was to analyse the impact, interaction and difference between the density of Typha angustifolia L and sand media thickness on decrease of leachate pollutant substances, and the implication of CWs method as a technical strategy. The method of research used experiment with a split plot design in laboratory scale. Leachate sample was taken from leachate landfill overflow in wetland in Terboyo Genuk. Statistic test used variance analysis on two or more factors and pairwise comparison. Sand media used in this research was: ES D 60/10= 0,008−1,04 mm; UC 3,15; influent leachate level rate 0,10 m3/day; number of treatments of 36 CWs units and 12 controls with 4 replications. Observation of effluent in the CWs was carried out using split plot in time method with reference to the HDT 7, 9, 11 and 13 days. Data analysis were carried out using the linear additive model with Anova, to analyse the impact and interaction of plant density and sand media thickness on CEs effluent, while two-tail Anova (p < 0.05) was used to analyse Pb level difference at different locations. Data analysis was carried out using IBM-SPSS Statistics 20 (p < 0.05) (IBM Corporation 1989, 2011). Result of species determination suggested that T. angustifolia L was the suitable plant for polluted wetland. T.angustifolia L was the dominant plant chosen in treatment of various types of waste at 96.429 % level in the related research review. Sand media was an important component in the filtration process and one of the medias used for the microsystem in decreasing turbidity and increasing DO content level, as well as in combination of several processes, such as sedimentation, adsorption and biological activities. TDS decrease was not influenced by the density of T. angustifolia L and sand media thickness. The highest TDS segregation on 50 cm sand media resulted in low density with HDT between 11-13 days. Decrease of BOD was significantly influenced by plant density and sand media thickness of 50 cm and medium density of plant with 7 days HDT. Decrease of COD was influenced by significantly from plant density, rather than by sand media thickness. Decrease of COD was found in sand media thickness of 55 cm and medium plant density, with the lowest HDT of 9 days and highest HDT of 11 days. Decrease of BOD level in the CWs interacts significatly with plant density and sand media, vice versa, but did not interact with the decrease of TDS and COD. There was a significant difference and positive correlation of Pb level in: sand media, roots, leaves, influent and effluent. Pb absorption rate at the roots of T. angustifolia L was between 2—7 times greater than absorption at leaves and sand media. The highest Pb bioaccumulation rate was found in low density at level 4.150, and the lowest rate was in the low density. Pb level rate was as follows: roots > sand media > leaves > influent > effluent. Decrease of TDS with medium efficiency was between 49,59−75.55 %. Decrease of BOD with high efficiency was between 96.06−99.277 %. Decrease of COD with high efficiency was between 90.97—96.66 %. Decrease of Pb with high efficiency was between 82.74−98.69 %. Implication of CW with upflow system can be adjusted to effluent quality standard and the on-site land area. CWs metod with sideward serial process flow can be applied on sideward land, and CWs method with parallel or single forward process flow can be applied on narrow and forward land. Key words: contructed wetland, leachate, sand media, efficiency of segregation, and density of T.angustifolia L.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions:School of Postgraduate > Doctor Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:66326
Deposited By:Mrs Ekana Perpus Pasca
Deposited On:09 Nov 2018 09:58
Last Modified:09 Nov 2018 09:58

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