RESPON PEMAJANAN DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST (DEE) TERHADAP PENAMBANG BAWAH TANAH DI PT. FREEPORT INDONESIA

SUSANTO, Arif and Purwanto, Purwanto and Sunoko, Henna Rya and Setiani, Onny (2018) RESPON PEMAJANAN DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST (DEE) TERHADAP PENAMBANG BAWAH TANAH DI PT. FREEPORT INDONESIA. PhD thesis, School of Postgraduate.

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Abstract

Sesuai Undang-undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 yaitu untuk menjaga fungsi maupun kualitas lingkungan yang berkelanjutan, khususnya udara yang merupakan sumberdaya alam yang harus dilindungi untuk kehidupan manusia dan mahluk hidup lainnya, maka kualitas udara harus memenuhi peraturan perundangan agar sesuai dengan standar kualitas lingkungan. Di PT Freeport Indonesia, terdapat tambang logam mineral seperti tembaga (Cu) dan emas (Au), yang dilakukan dengan membuat terowongan menuju tambang bawah tanah. Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) merupakan campuran gas nitrogen oksida (NOx), karbon monoksida (CO), dan diesel particulate matter (DPM) yang dihasilkan dari penggunaan bahan bakar diesel untuk mesin berupa kendaraan alat berat bertenaga diesel yang beroperasi di lingkungan bawah tanah operasi tambang . Tujuan studi ini adalah untuk menganalisis respon pemajanan Diesel Engine Exhaust (DEE) pada tambang bawah tanah di PT Freeport Indonesia terhadap kesehatan pernapasan pekerja tambang bawah tanah. Data diesel particulate matter (DPM) diukur dengan metode NIOSH No. 5040 dan menerapkan metode geostatistikal dalam memetakan kosentrasi di area tambang bawah tanah. Pengukuran spirometrik dilakukan untuk mendiagnosis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) pada 314 pekerja. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi diesel engine exhaust (DEE) khususnya diesel particulate matter (DPM) tinggi dan melebihi permissible exposure limit (PEL) yang ditetapkan yaitu 160 TC µg/m3. Adapun hasil pengukuran spirometrik mengindikasikan bahwa sebanyak 26 pekerja (8.3%) mengalami COPD (post bronchodilator <0.70). Adapun hasil pengukuran keparahan gangguan aliran udara pada pekerja yang mengalami COPD, keparahan batasan aliran udara klasifikasi sedang didapati pada 14 pekerja (54%); klasifikasi parah (GOLD 3) didapati pada 10 pekerja (38%), dan klasifikasi sangat parah (GOLD 4) didapati pada 2 pekerja (8%). Terkait topik, permasalahan dan tujuan penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengaruh paparan khususnya oleh DPM terhadap keparahan batasan aliran udara dengan COPD yaitu bernilai 0.03. Pemetaan konsentrasi DEE dapat diterapkan pada area tambang lain untuk mengukur dampaknya pada kesehatan pekerja berdasarkan pada perkiraan paparannya di operasi tambang bawah. Rekomendasi yang dapat diberikan yaitu pekerja tambang bawah tanah yang telah mengalami keparahan gangguan aliran udara dapat berotasi ke area tambang terbuka atau tugas lainnya di luar area tambang. Untuk perlindungan bagi pekerja tersebut yaitu dengan program perlindungan pernapasan, melalui kewajiban penggunaan masker partikulat P100 yang memiliki efektifitas 99,9% dalam mencegah respirable particulate masuk melalui sistem pernafasan. Peningkatan pengetahuan gaya hidup bersih dan sehat juga dilakukan bagi pekerja yang menderita COPD untuk mencegah tingkat keparahan yang lebih tinggi. Kata kunci: gangguan aliran udara; COPD; DEE; geostatistik; pekerja tambang bawah tanah. Based on Act Number 32 year 2009, i.e. to keep the function and sustainable environmental quality, especially the air that has been natural resources that must be protected for human and other creatures’ life, then the air quslity must comply regulations so that it is in line with the environment quality standard. At PT Freeport Indonesia (PTFI), there is a mine for mineral metal like copper (Cu) and gold (Au), by doing tunnels towards the underground mine. Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) is a mixture of nitrogen oxide (NOx) gas, carbon monoxide (CO), and diesel particulate matter (DPM) resulted from the use of diesel fuel for machines in a form of diesel-powered vehicles (heavy equipments) in mine operation’s underground environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the exposure response of Diesel Engine Exhaust (DEE) in underground mine at PTFI on the respiratory health of underground mine workers. The data of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is measured by using NIOSH No. 5040 and applying geostatictical method in mapping the concentration in underground mine area. Spirometric measurement is conducted to diagnose Choronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on 314 miners. The result shows that the diesel engine exhaust (DEE) especially diesel particulate matter (DPM) is high and exceed the stated permissible exposure limit (PEL), i.e. 160 µg/m3. The result of spirometric measurement indicates that 26 workers (8.3%) have COPD (post bronchodilator <0.70). Furthermore, the measurement result of severity of airflow limitation with medium classification is found on 14 miners (54%); severe classification (GOLD 3) is found on 10 miners (38%), and very severe classification (GOLD 4) is found on 2 miners (8%). Regarding the topic, problem and the objectives of this research, it can be concluded that the exposure influence especially by DPM on the airflow severity with COPD is 0.03. DEE concentration mapping can be applied in other mine area to measure its impacts for workers’ health based on the estimation of its exposure in mine operation. The recommendation that can be given is that the underground workers who have severity of airflow limitation can rotate to open pit mine area or other assignments outside the mine area. For protection of those workers, i.e. with respiratory protection program, is through the mandatory usage of P100 particulate mask that has 99.9% effectiveness, in preventing respirable particulate to go into the respiratory system. The improvement of clean and healthy life style knowledge can also be done for workers who have COPD to prevent a more severe level. Keywords: airflow limitation; COPD; DEE; geostatistics; underground workers.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions:School of Postgraduate > Doctor Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:66323
Deposited By:Mrs Ekana Perpus Pasca
Deposited On:09 Nov 2018 08:41
Last Modified:09 Nov 2018 08:41

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