POLA SEBARAN RESIDU PESTISIDA ORGANOKLORIN DAN ORGANOFOSFAT DENGAN ANALISIS GEOSPASIAL DI LINGKUNGAN TANAH PERTANIAN BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L.) KECAMATAN WANASARI KABUPATEN BREBES

JOKO, Tri and Anggoro, Sutrisno and Sunoko, Henna Rya (2018) POLA SEBARAN RESIDU PESTISIDA ORGANOKLORIN DAN ORGANOFOSFAT DENGAN ANALISIS GEOSPASIAL DI LINGKUNGAN TANAH PERTANIAN BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L.) KECAMATAN WANASARI KABUPATEN BREBES. PhD thesis, School of Postgraduate.

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Abstract

Kecamatan Wanasari merupakan sentra pertanian bawang merah di Kabupaten Brebes. Petani di Kecamatan Wanasari melakukan 3-4 kali penyemprotan pestisida dalam waktu seminggu. Dosis pestisida yang tertera pada label 5 ml/l pada tangki 14 liter sehingga dosis yang seharusnya digunakan 70 ml/tangki namun pestisida yang dicampurkan tidak menggunakan takaran. Pestisida yang terakumulasi di tanah dapat menurunkan kualitas tanah seperti menurunnya populasi cacing tanah, tanah mengeras, hingga terjadi resistensi dan resurgensi hama. Kondisi seperti ini dapat menurunkan produktivitas pertanian dan meningkatkan biaya operasional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pola sebaran cemaran residu pestisida organoklorin dan organofosfat dengan analisis geospasial di lingkungan tanah pertanian bawang merah di Kecamatan Wanasari, Kabupaten Brebes. Penelitian ini dilakukan di area sentra pertanian bawang merah Kecamatan Wanasari pada bulan September 2016 hingga bulan Februari tahun 2018. Desain penelitian ini adalah studi deskriptif dengan pendekatan geospasial. Analisis geospasial dilakukan dengan metode interpolasi ordinary kriging dengan model spherical semivariogram dengan teknik analisis spasial weighted overlay dan validasi dengan metode statistik menggunakan hierarchial cluster analysis dan analisis faktor principal component analysis. Berdasarkan hasil uji residu pestisida golongan organofosfat ditemukan 7 (tujuh) bahan aktif di sampel tanah pada lahan pertanian bawang merah di Kecamatan Wanasari meliputi klorpirifos, diazinon, fenitrotion, metidation, malation, paration, dan profenofos. Residu organoklorin tidak ditemukan di wilayah ini. Nilai koefisien permeabilitas (K) yang ditemukan pada penelitian ini berkisar antara 10-6-10-7 cm/detik. Sebesar 77,27% responden melakukan penyemprotan pestisida ≥3 kali per minggu dan 68,18% responden menggunakan ≥4 jenis pestisida yang dicampurkan dalam 1 (satu) kali penyemprotan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan koefisien permeabilitas tanah dan jumlah campuran pestisida berpengaruh terhadap residu pestisida organofosfat pada pertanian bawang merah. Analisis sebaran residu pestisida menggunakan metode kriging menunjukkan sebaran residu ke arah selatan Kecamatan Wanasari. RMSE residu pestisida 0,4316, koefisien permeabilitas tanah 0,000015, tekstur tanah 2,0196, pH tanah 0,4448, frekuensi penyemprotan 0,2176, dan jumlah campuran pestisida 0,2872. Nilai RMSE kiring ini lebih kecil dibandingkan RMSE IDW. Dari hasil analisis komponen utama (PCA) dihasilkan faktor 1 (eksternal) terdiri dari variabel frekuensi pestisida serta jumlah campuran pestisida yang digunakan. Faktor 2 (internal) terdiri dari residu pestisida dan koefisien permeabilitas tanah. Analisis spasial overlay menunjukkan adanya 2 area yaitu area risiko dan area tidak berisiko. Area risiko tinggi berdasarkan peta meliputi Desa Pesantunan, Klampok, Pebatan, Wanasari, Siasem, Sigentong, Sidamulya, Tanjungsari, Dukuhwringin, Siwungkuk, Jagelempeni, Lengkong, Glonggong, Tegalgandu, Sisalam. Area tidak berisiko meliputi Desa Sawojajar, Dumeling, Keboledan, Kertabesuki, Kupu. Luas area tidak berisiko 439,05 Ha, luas area berisiko 1.531,96 Ha. Validasi menggunakan dendogram menunjukkan 80% kesamaan antara wilayah berisiko dan wilayah yang tidak berisiko hasil analisis overlay dengan analisis hieararchial cluster. Analisis SWOT menghasilkan strategi pengelolaan lingkungan pertanian di Kecamatan Wanasari yang meliputi aspek kelembagaan, teknis, sosial, dan ekonomi. Kata Kunci : pestisida, organofosfat, organoklorin, bawang merah, sebaran spasial. Wanasari sub district is the center of onion farming in Brebes regency. Farmers in Wanasari sub district used pesticides 3-4 times of spraying within a week. The dose of pesticide listed on the 5 ml / L label for use on the 14 liters tank so that the dosage should be used 70 ml / tank but the pesticides mixed did not use the dosage. Pesticides accumulated in the soil can degrade soil quality such as the decrease of earthworm population, hardened soil, until resistance and pest resurgence occur. Conditions like this can reduce agricultural productivity and increase operational costs. The aim of this research is to know the pattern of contamination of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues with geospatial analysis in onion farm environment in Wanasari sub district, Brebes regency. This research was conducted in the central area of onion farming Wanasari district, Brebes regency, Central Java province in September 2016 until February of 2018. The design of this research is descriptive with geospatial approach. Geospatial analysis was done by ordinary kriging interpolation method with shivetographer semivariogram model with spatial weighted overlay and validation technique with statistical method using hierarchial cluster analysis and principal component analysis of factor analysis. Laboratory test showed that there were found 7 (seven) active ingredients of organophosphate group in soil samples on onion farm at Wanasari sub district, Brebes. The active ingredients include chlorpyrifos, diazinone, phenitrotion, methidathion, malathion, parathion, and profenofos. Whereas organochlorine residue was not found in this region. The value of permeability coefficient (K) found in this research ranged from 10-7-10-6 cm/sec. As much 77.27% of respondents sprayed pesticides ≥ 3 times per week and 68.18% respondents using ≥4 types of pesticides mixed in 1 (one) time of spraying. Analysis of the pesticide residues distribution used kriging method showed that the distribution of residues to the south of Wanasari subdistrict. The RMSE of pesticide residue 0.4316, soil permeability coefficient 0,000015, soil texture 2,0196, soil pH 0.4448, spraying frequency 0,2176, and amount of pesticide mixture 0,2872. The krigging RMSE value was smaller than IDW RMSE. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) produced factor 1 (external) consisted of variable frequency of pesticides and amount of pesticide mixture used. Factor 2 (internal) consisted of pesticides residue and soil permeability coefficient. Spatial overlay analysis showed that there are 2 areas of risk and no risk areas. High risk areas based on maps include Pesantunan, Klampok, Pebatan, Wanasari, Siasem, Sigentong, Sidamulya, Tanjungsari, Dukuhwringin, Siwungkuk, Jagelempeni, Lengkong, Glonggong, Tegalgandu, Sisalam villages. Areas not at risk include Sawojajar, Dumeling, Keboledan, Kertabesuki, Kupu villages. Wide area not at risk was 439,05 Ha, and wide of risk area 1,531,96 Ha. Overlay validation used dendogram showed 80% similarity between risk areas and non-risk areas of overlay analysis with hieararchial cluster analysis. SWOT analysis resulted in agriculture environmental management strategy in Wanasari subdistrict covering institutional, technical, social and economic aspects. Keywords: pesticide, organophosphate, organochlorine, onion, spatial distribution.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions:School of Postgraduate > Doctor Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:66181
Deposited By:Mrs Ekana Perpus Pasca
Deposited On:31 Oct 2018 10:16
Last Modified:31 Oct 2018 10:16

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