MODEL HUBUNGAN ORIENTASI DAN KONFIGURASI BLOK BANGUNAN PERUMAHAN KAWASAN BANDARA TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBISINGAN

SETYOWATI, Erni (2011) MODEL HUBUNGAN ORIENTASI DAN KONFIGURASI BLOK BANGUNAN PERUMAHAN KAWASAN BANDARA TERHADAP TINGKAT KEBISINGAN. PhD thesis, Program Pascasarjana Undip.

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Abstract

Telah dilakukan penelitian eksperimental untuk menguji model hubungan antara penurunan tingkat bunyi pada suatu kawasan perumahan sekitar bandar udara dengan perubahan sudut orientasinya terhadap landas pacu. Langkah awal penelitian setelah dilakukan studi pustaka, adalah melakukan penelitian pendahuluan dengan kasus perumahan Graha Padma di Semarang yang memiliki jarak terdekat terhadap garis landas pacu pesawat. Hasil penelitian pendahuluan menemukan bahwa ada 2 (dua) variabel yang berpengaruh signifikan terhadap tingkat bunyi yang diterima, yaitu aspek orientasi dan pola konfigurasi. Sudut orientasi dalam penelitian ini adalah sudut yang terbentuk antara garis tegak lurus sumbu landas pacu dengan garis tegak lurus façade depan bangunan terhadap garis sumbu landas pacu bandar udara. Karena pola konfigurasi perumahan dapat sangat beragam, penelitian aspek konfigurasi dibatasi pada konfigurasi blok bangunan linier-rektanguler. Sementara itu ciri khas daerah beriklim tropis rendah dengan gerakan angin cukup besar mempengaruhi faktor refleksi bunyi dan tingkat bunyi pada susunan konfigurasi perumahan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel iklim mempengaruhi tingkat bunyi dengan nilai korelasi R2 antara 0,07-0,75. Karena sudut orientasi yang dapat diamati dalam penelitian pendahuluan ini terbatas pada sudut tertentu saja, maka dibuatlah permodelan bangunan agar sudut orientasi yang dapat diteliti lebih bervariasi. Untuk dapat meneliti hubungan antara tingkat bunyi dengan sudut orientasi yang bervariasi, maka model bangunan yang dibuat dapat berputar pada porosnya. Sedangkan untuk meneliti aspek konfigurasi, 3 (tiga) model bangunan digabungkan ditambah dengan elemen dinding depan bangunan, sebagai perwujudan pola konfigurasi perumahan yang bersifat linier rektanguler. Dengan cara tersebut, maka Nilai relatif perubahan bunyi dapat diketahui dengan membandingkan nilai tingkat bunyi model diputar (L) dengan nilai tingkat bunyi model yang tidak diputar (L0). Peringkat nilai relatif perubahan bunyi didapat dengan menggunakan metode komparatif Uji Beda Rata-rata, sedangkan model hubungan matematis tingkat bunyi dengan sudut orientasi L=f() didekati dengan melakukan uji matematis secara goneometris melalui perangkat lunak Origin-8, analisis teoritis dan analisis empiris. Melalui validasi dengan perangkat lunak Origin-8 ditemukan rumus model hubungan matematis antara tingkat bunyi dengan sudut orientasi L  L0  A sin       . Model hubungan ini diharapkan bermanfaat bagi ilmu perancangan kota khususnya perancangan masterplan perumahan yang mampu mengantisipasi kebisingan lingkungan, melalui upaya pengaturan sudut orientasi dan konfigurasi blok bangunan. Kata kunci : orientasi, konfigurasi, tingkat bunyi, perumahan, kawasan bandara. The experimental research was conducted to verify the correlation model between the sound levels received in a residential area around the airport and the change of building orientation to the airport runway. The first step after conducting the research literature, was a preliminary research to the case of housing in the airport area, Graha Padma Residence in Semarang. It has the closest distance to the critical point of the aircraft take-off and landing on the runway. The preliminary research found out that there were 2 (two) variables which significantly influence the sound level, they were orientation and configuration aspect. The terminology of orientation angle in this research is the angle of building orientation to the axis of the airport runway. Based on literature review, the pattern of configuration can be vary in shape. It can be both linier and non-linier configuration pattern. Therefore the configuration aspect in this research is limited to the linear- rectangulair configuration pattern. Meanwhile, the climate specification of the hot humid region which has a very strong wind can affect the sound reflection and sound level on the pattern of housing configurations. Research results indicate that climatic variables influence the level of noise with the correlation values R2 between 0.07 to 0.75. Because the orientation angle which could be observed in this preliminary study was limited to some specific angle, models of buildings were made then, with the aim to be able to study more various angles of orientation. For the configuration aspect, 3 (three) models were united and added with a wall in front of the models to make the housing block configuration. In order to examine the correlation between the level of noise with various orientation angles, the building model was made to rotate on its axis. In that way, the relative value of the sound changes can be identified by comparing the sound level of rotated-model (L) with the sound level of unrotated-model (L0). The ranking of relative value of the sound changes had been obtained by performing statistical Comparative Methods of Compare Means, while mathematical model of the relationship between the sound level and the orientation angle L=f() had been approached through mathematical analysis process by software of Origin-8, theoretical and empirical analysis. From the validation formula process utilizing software of Origin-8, it had been found the mathematical model between the noise level and the orientation of configuration angle. That L (sound level) depends on L0 and the angle of orientation (),is L  L  Asin     c    . The correlation model will be useful for the science of Urban Planning and Design, particularly Housing Masterplan that is able to anticipate the environmental noise from the airport, through the efforts of the orientation and configuration angle settings of building blocks. Keywords: Orientation, configuration, noise level, housing, the airport area

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:T Technology > TE Highway engineering. Roads and pavements
Divisions:School of Postgraduate (mixed) > Doctor Program in Architecture and Urban Planning
ID Code:40729
Deposited By:Mrs Ekana Perpus Pasca
Deposited On:26 Nov 2013 11:56
Last Modified:26 Nov 2013 11:56

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