Pengaruh Sistem Pertanian Ramah Lingkungan Terhadap Kualitas Tanah Pada Lahan Apel di Kelompok Tani Makmur Abadi, Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Kota Batu

Indahwati, Retno (2012) Pengaruh Sistem Pertanian Ramah Lingkungan Terhadap Kualitas Tanah Pada Lahan Apel di Kelompok Tani Makmur Abadi, Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Kota Batu. Masters thesis, Program Magister Ilmu Lingkungan Undip.

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Sistem pertanian intensif akan menyebabkan penurunan kualitas tanah yang berakibat pada produktivitas tanaman apel menurun. Sistem pertanian ramah lingkungan yang dilakukan petani diharapkan dapat memperbaiki dan meningkatkan kualitas tanah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh sistem pertanian ramah lingkungan terhadap kualitas tanah pada lahan apel. Penelitian ini dilakukan di lahan KT. Makmur Abadi desa Tulungrejo Kecamatan Bumiaji Kota Batu bulan Juni-Agustus 2012. Kualitas tanah yang dianalisis meliputi sifat kimia, fisika dan biologi tanah. Sifat kimia dan fisika tanah diketahui dari analisis tanah yang meliputi pH, kandungan C-organik, N, P , K, Kapasitas Tukar Kation (KTK) dan tekstur tanah. Biologi tanah meliputi analisis Arthropoda tanah, jamur dan bakteri tanah serta tanaman penutup tanah. Hasil analisis tanah, populasi jamur dan bakteri tanah di uji statistik One Way Anova. Sampel Arthropoda tanah diambil setiap lima hari sekali sebanyak lima kali menggunakan metode botol jebak (pitfall trap) yang dipasang di lima transek setiap lokasi. Komposisi Arthropoda tanah dianalisis dengan Indeks Nilai Penting dan keanekaragamannya dengan Indeks Shannon Wiener. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas tanah pada lahan apel sistem pertanian ramah lingkungan lebih baik daripada sistem pertanian intensif yang ditunjukkan oleh C-organik, N-total dan P yang lebih tinggi, sedangkan K lebih rendah. Sedangkan KTK dan tekstur tanah relatif sama. Arthropoda tanah yang didapat dalam 150 jebakan adalah 15.079 individu pada lahan sistem pertanian ramah lingkungan dan 9.461 individu pada lahan sistem pertanian intensif. Ordo Collembola Famili Entomobryidae mendominasi di setiap lokasi (INP=40,83-64,31). Keanekaragaman Arthropoda tanah pada lahan pertanian intensif (1,58-2,04) lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan pertanian ramah lingkungan (1,56-1,99). Keanekaragaman Arthropoda kedua lahan termasuk sedang. Populasi jamur dan bakteri tanah di lahan pertanian intensif lebih tinggi daripada di lahan pertanian ramah lingkungan. Sistem pertanian ramah lingkungan dengan memberikan pupuk organik dapat meningkatkan kualitas tanah pada lahan apel sehingga perlu dilakukan secara terus menerus dan dikembangkan dalam skala luas. Kata kunci : sistem pertanian ramah lingkungan, kualitas tanah, biologi tanah   ABSTRACT The intensive farming system is believed to have negative impact on the soil quality due, which, in turn, affects the productivity of the apple. An environment-friendly farming system affected to repair and increase soil quality of the apple. This study aimed to analyses the effect of using environment-friendly farming system to soil quality. The research took from of field study in Makmur Abadi Farmer Union of Tulungrejo Village in Bumiaji District Batu City, which lasted from June to August 2012. Soil quality analyze performed of pH, content of organic matter, N, P, K, cation exchange capacity and soil texture. Soil biology analyze performed of soil Arthropods, soil fungal and soil bacterial and ground cover plant. Antropods samples were collected once in five days for five different periods using a pitfall trap. Soil analyzed result and soil fungal and soil bacterial population was analyze by One Way ANOVAs. The composition soil Arthropods was analyzed by Prominent Value Index, whereas diversity was measured by Shannon Wiener Index. The study results showed that in general the quality of the apple plantation using the environment-friendly farming system gave a better result than that of using the intensive farming system performed of increased content of organic matter, N and P, otherwise decreased of K. Cation Exchange Capacity and soil texture almost same. Soil arthroprods density rate from 150 traps of the environment-friendly farming system resulted in 15,079 individuals, whereas the density rate of the intensive farming system resulted in 9,461 individuals. The intensive farming system had more diverse arthropods than did the environment-friendly farming system, but both systems had a moderate arthropods diversity. Soil fungal and soil bacterial population in the plantation using the intensive farming system were larger than in the plantation using the environment-friendly farming system. The environment-friendly farming system with added organic manure can increased soil quality in the apple plantation so applicated that continuously and in large scale. Keywords: an environment friendly farming system, soil quality, soil biology

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Divisions:School of Postgraduate (mixed) > Master Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:37951
Deposited By:ms Hastomo Agus
Deposited On:17 Jan 2013 14:44
Last Modified:26 Nov 2013 20:54

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