Fitoremediasi Pasir Sisa Tambang (Tailing) Dengan Tanaman Gelagah (Phragmites karka)

Arif, Sardjono Hermono (2012) Fitoremediasi Pasir Sisa Tambang (Tailing) Dengan Tanaman Gelagah (Phragmites karka). Masters thesis, Program Magister Ilmu Lingkungan.

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Abstract

ABSTRACT ARIF SARDJONO HERMONO. Phytoremediation of tailing using Phragmites karka. Supervised by Prof. Dr. Ir Purwanto, DEA and Dr Munifatul Izzati M.Sc. Phytoremediation is a technique to reduce or to eliminate contaminants including heavy metals from soil and water. This method is effective because it is uncomplicated, and environmentally friendly, so that this will be beneficial to the ecosystems. Investigation of Phragmites karka as a phytoremediator needs to be conducted since this species commonly found to grow on the tailing depository area. Tailing consists of Fe-oxide quartz, mica and other substances including heavy metals of Cu, Fe, Mn dan Zn. The aims of this research were to investigate the growth of P. karka as well as its ability to remediate tailing containing Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The addition of soil or compost to tailing used as the growth media was done to increase the growth of P. karka. Three differents in water content of the growth media (dry, wet and watery) were combined with the additions of soil or compost to tailing. The research was done from September to December 2010. Three different stem parts (bottom, middle and upper) of P. karka were grown on tailing added with soil (1 : 1); tailing added with 30% or 60% of compost. Growth of P. karka cutting was observed every week up to 5 weeks by measuring the length and number of leaves. Three months after the growth, P. karka was harvested for determination of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in their leaves and stems. The results showed that the leaf length of P. karka was significantly affected by different part of stems, water content of the growth medium as well as the composition of the growth media, however, number of P. karka leaves was only significantly affected by composition and water content in the growth media. Medium composition and water content on the growth medium significantly affected the concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn, but did not significantly affect Mn concentration on the growth medium after planting with P. karka. More than 92% of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were found in the roots of P. karka grown on tailing. Only very small concentrations of the heavy metals were found on the leaves and stems of P. karka. Therefore, P. karka is potential as phytostabilizator. Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in the stems and leaves of P. karka were affected by the composition as well as by the water content in the growth media. Keywods : phytoremediation, tailing, Phragmites karka, heavy metals, soil, compost ABSTRAK ARIF SARDJONO HERMONO. Fitoremediasi Tailing dengan Phragmites karka. Dibimbing oleh Prof. Dr. Ir Purwanto, DEA and Dr Munifatul Izzati M.Sc. Fitoremediasi merupakan metode untuk mengurangi atau menghilangkan bahan pencemar antara lain logam berat yang terdapat di dalam tanah atau air. Fitoremediasi adalah metode yang efektif karena teknik ini cukup sederhana, ramah lingkungan sehingga menguntungkan bagi ekosistem. Potensi Phragmites karka (gelagah) sebagai fitoremediator perlu diteliti karena tanaman ini ditemukan tumbuh pada area pengendapan pasir sisa tambang (tailing). Tailing mengandung kuarsit oksida besi, mica dan lain-lain termasuk logam berat Cu, Fe, Mn dan Zn. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan tanaman gelagah dan kemampuannya dalam meremediasi logam berat Cu, Fe, Mn dan Zn yang terkandung dalam tailing. Untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman gelagah dilakukan penambahan tanah dan kompos pada tailing sebagai media tumbuhnya. Kondisi kering, basah dan tergenang dikombinasikan dengan pemberian tanah dan kompos pada tailing. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan September hingga Desember 2010. Tiga ruas batang gelagah berbeda yaitu ruas batang bagian bawah, tengah dan atas ditumbuhkan pada media perlakuan. Kondisi media tanam adalah campuran tailing dengan tanah (1:1), dan campuran tailing dengan kompos sebanyak 30 atau 60%. Pertumbuhan stek batang diamati setiap minggu hingga umur 5 minggu dengan mengukur panjang dan jumlah daun. Setelah tanaman berumur 3 bulan diukur konsentrasi Cu, Fe, Mn dan Zn yang terdapat pada batang dan daun dan media tanam sebelum dan setelah ditanami gelagah serta pada tanaman kontrol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan panjang daun gelagah dipengaruhi oleh bagian ruas batang, kondisi air dan komposisi media tanam, sedangkan jumlah daun hanya dipengaruhi oleh komposisi dan kondisi air media tanam. Komposisi media tanam dan kandungan air pada media berpengaruh nyata terhadap konsentrasi Cu, Fe dan Zn tetapi tidak berpengaruh pada logam Mn yang tersisa pada media setelah ditanami gelagah. Lebih dari 92% kandungan Cu, Fe, Mn dan Zn terakumulasi di bagian akar gelagah yang tumbuh pada area tailing, hanya sebagian kecil terdapat pada bagian daun dan batang, dengan demikian tanaman gelagah berpotensi sebagai fitostabilisator. Konsentrasi logam berat Cu, Fe, Mn dan Zn pada batang dan daun gelagah dipengaruhi oleh komposisi dan kondisi air media tanam. Kata kunci : fitoremediasi, pasir sisa tambang, Phragmites karka, logam berat, tanah, kompos

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:T Technology > TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:35427
Deposited By:ms Hastomo Agus
Deposited On:28 May 2012 14:17
Last Modified:28 May 2012 14:17

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