TRANSPLANTASI HUKUM ANTARA HARMONISASI DAN POTENSI BENTURAN (Stud! Transplantasi Doktrin yang Dikembangkan dot! Tradisi Common Law pada Undang-Undang .Perseroan Terbatas)

BUDIYONO, TRI (2006) TRANSPLANTASI HUKUM ANTARA HARMONISASI DAN POTENSI BENTURAN (Stud! Transplantasi Doktrin yang Dikembangkan dot! Tradisi Common Law pada Undang-Undang .Perseroan Terbatas). Masters thesis, FAKULTAS HUKUM.

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Abstract

Referring to Alan Watson, "legal transplants are alive and well as they were in the time of Hammurabi." Taking this statement as a starting point, legal transplantation is a reality, especially when the state recognized modem law. The intensity and frequency of legal transplantations are increasing, particularly when state absorbed into the whirlof globalization. Transplantation of law along with the globalization (of law) has become the shaping factors to the cyclus polibius resulting in the shrinking world. Therefore legal transplantations have encouraged the globalization, while the globalization has promoted legal transplantations. Legal transplantation is both the beginning and the end of the process. This dissertation is an effort to reveal the fact that the issue of legal transplantation ignites academic debate both at theoretical and practical level. Taking legal transplantation as the main theme, the analysis of this dissertation is focused on transplantations of legal doctrine of common law countries into Indonesian Corporation Act (Act No. 1/1995). It is contented that legal transplantation has resulted in the harmonization of law, especially in the sub-system of law dealing with limited corporations. However, when it comes to implementation, the legal transplantation has generated collision between the idea of justice and the court practices. This research found that there are seven legal common law doctrines that have been transplanted into the Indonesian Corporation Act. These doctrines are (a) Piercing the Corporate Veil (PCV), (b) Ultra Vires Doctrine, (c) Fiduciary Doctrine, (d) Derivative Action Doctrine, (e) Business Judgment Doctrine, (f) Self-dealing Doctrine, (g) Corporate Opportunity Doctrine. In the legislating process, there have been heating debates on how these doctrines should be formulated within the Indonesia Corporation Law. As a result there are only two doctrines, i.e. "Piercing the Corporate Veil" and "Derivative Action Doctrine," which are inserted in the Act with elaborated wording. Elaborated formulation, however, could not be achieved in terms of the rest of the doctrines. The legislator has fully comprehended this situation and leaves the implementation to the judges' diligence and good judgments. The (legal) doctrines transplanted into the Act have made their contribution to the formulation of the good corporate governance (CGC) principle aimed at the establishment of a corporate management based on the balance between authority and responsibility. Basically, the more authority that someone has, the more responsibility that s/he has. The establishment of good corporate governance is also supported by imposition of sanctions to those who abuse their authority with regards to this principle. While the transplantation of (legal) doctrines has made its contribution to the establishment of the good corporate governance (CGC), that is not case with the principle of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The CSR principle remains to be an academic discourse that needs to be formulated in the Indonesian Corporation Act. In the language of law, CSR principle is an ius constituendum, and not yet ius constitutum. Key words : Transplantation, Harmonization, (Potential) Conflict, Common Law, Indonesian Corporation Act. Meminjarn istilah Afizn Watson, "legal transplants are alive and well as they were in the time of Vammurafii." Berangkat dan konstatasi ini, transplantasi hukum merupakan realitas, khususnya ketika negara mulai mengenal hukum modem. Intensitas dan frekuwensi untuk melakukan transplantasi hukum semakin meningkat ketika negara terlarut dalam pusaran gelombang globalisasi. Transplantasi hukum dan globalisasi (hokum) telah menjadi faktor pembentuk siklus polibius yang menghasilkan dunia yang semakin menyempit. Dengan demikian, transplantasi hukum telah mendorong globalisasi clan sebaliknya globalisasi telah mendorong meningkatnya transplantasi hukum. Disertasi ini berusaha untuk mengungkap bahwa transplantasi hukum balk pada tataran teoritik maupun praksis telah meninggalkan perdebatan akademik. Dengan payung tema transplantasi hukum, disertasi ini memfokuslcan kajiannya pada transplantasi doktrin-doktrin (hukum) yang berkembang di negara-negara yang menganut (rumpun) common law legal system ke UU No. 1 tahun 1995 tentang Perseroan Terbatas. Transplantasi ini telah menghasilkan harmonisasi hukum, khususnya dalam sub system hukum yang mengatur tentang Perseroan Terbatas. Namun demikian, pada arcs implementasi, transplantasi hukum juga telah menghasilkan benturan atas ide keadilan yang menjadi cita-cita ketika doktrin yang ditransplantasikan dipositifkan dalam UU PT dengan praksis peradilan. Dari hasil pengkajian terhadap pembentukan UU PT, diperoleh basil bahwa ada tujuh doktrin (hukum yang ditransplantasikan. Ketujuh doktrin tersebut adalah (a) Piercing the Corporate Veil Doctrine, (b) Ultra Vires Doktrin, (c) Fiduaciary Duty Doctrine, (d) Derivative Action Doctrine, (e) Business Judgement Doctrine, (f) Self Dealing Doctrine, dan Corporate Opportunity Doctrine. Dalam proses positivisasinya, telah terjadi perdebatan bagaimana menormakan ide dasar doktrin tersebut dalam rumusan pasal dalam UU PT. Dinamika ini pada doktrin Piercing the Corporate Veil dan Doktrin Derivative Action telah dihasilkan rumusan pasal yang cukup terperinei, namun demikian pada doktrin-doktrin lainnya terjadi kebuntuan untuk membuat rumusan yang terinci. Kondisi yang terakhir ini telah memunculkan pemikiran dikalangan pembentuk UU untuk kWh menyerahkan praksisnya pada kearifan clan kecermatan hakim. Doktrin-doktrin (hukum) yang ditransplantasikan telah memberikan andil pada pembentukan prinsip good corporate government (GCG), yaitu mengarah pada pembentukan tata kelola perusahaan yang didasarkan pada keseimbangan antara kewenangan dan tanggung jawab. Prinsipnya, semakin besar kewenangan seseorang akan diikuti dengan semakin besarnya tanggung jawab yang hams dipikulnya. Namun demi¬kian, penciptaan prinsip GCG juga ditempuh dengan pemberian sanksi atas penyalah¬gunaan kewenangan bagi orang-orang yang menopang GCG. Kalau transplantasi doktrin (hukum) ini telah memberikan kontribusi path pembentukan prinsip GCG, tidak demi¬kian halnya dengan pembentukan prinsip corporate social responsibility (CSR). Dari optik ini, CSR masih ada pada tataran wacana, tetapi belum didaratkan pada pembentu¬kan hukum positip. Dalam bahasa hukum, belum merupakan iusconstitutum tetapi masih merupakan iusconstituendum. Terma-terma kunci : Transplantasi, Harmonisasi, (Potensi) Konflik Common Law, UU Perseroan Terbatas.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Doctor Program in Law
ID Code:28122
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:25 May 2011 10:51
Last Modified:25 May 2011 10:51

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