PEMBERIAN MALU REINTEGRATIF" SEBAGAI SARANA NONPENAL PENANGGULANGAN PERILAKU DELINKUENSI ANAK (Stud' Perilaku Delinkuensi Anak dan Penanggulangannya di Semarang dan Surakarta)

Hadisuprapto, Paulus (2002) PEMBERIAN MALU REINTEGRATIF" SEBAGAI SARANA NONPENAL PENANGGULANGAN PERILAKU DELINKUENSI ANAK (Stud' Perilaku Delinkuensi Anak dan Penanggulangannya di Semarang dan Surakarta). Masters thesis, FAKULTAS HUKUM.

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Abstract

Juvenile Delinquency as an actual social phenomenon, invites interests among academicians and practitioners as well. They try to understand the phenomenon and to find alternative way to deter it. Criminal Policy as rational organization of the societal reactions to crime (included juvenile delinquency) is practically done into two ways i.e. Penal Measures and Non-Penal measures. Penal measure has limitations, by concerning on the surface of the problems and not at the root of criminal problems — "kurieren am symptom". So, Non-Penal measures as sinergic partners are called for their role and should be considered to prevent criminal activities (included juvenile delinquency). Unfortunately, Non —Penal Measures are wide and general conception, so that it is difficult to be implemented practically. Meanwhile, in the field of criminology, there are theori¬tical concepts that might be employed nicely as operational and concrete concept of Non-Penal Measure in controling juvenile problems. Those criminological concepts are "the Reintegrative Shaming" and "the Restorative Juvenile Justice Paradigm". Based on the above mention, the study tries to examine (a) the imple¬mentation of penal measures in preventing juvenile delinquency in Semarang and Surakarta, (b) the potentiality of "the Reintegrative Shaming" as nonpenal mea-sures in preventing juvenile delinquency in Semarang and Surakarta, and (c) the Restorative Juvenile Justice Paradigm as alternative model in the pre¬vention of juvenile delinquency. In doing so, criminological approaches (sociology of criminal law) are applied. The study is conducted in Semarang and Surakarta municipality. Pri¬mary and Secondary data are collected through literature studies, documentary studies, and conducting some interviews. The respondents are 200 delinquent boys of BAPAS clients and their parents,Half of them are from Semarang and the rest of them are from Surakarta. The purposive sampling method is to be employed in the study. Data, are then analyzed by using qualitative as well as qualitative methods. The research findings could be summarized, as follow : (a) in practice, Penal Measure tends to stigmatize delinquent boys (criminologically stigmatiza¬tion could become criminogen factors). (b) This stigmatization of offender in juvenile justice procedure, is influenced by the weakness of the Juvenile Court Act. no. 3/1997 (the legal basis of handling juvenile offender through the juvenile court) and the unfulfilled conditions stipulating by the Act such as there is no professionalism in handling juvenile cases among the legal officials (the police, the prosecutor and the judge); there is no special places for detention and treatment of young offenders; (c) The Reintegrative Shaming is potential to be developed as Non-Penal Measure in preventing juvenile delinquency and (d) The Restorative Juvenile Justice Paradigm is a reasonable paradigm to be consi¬dered as an alternative model in the prevention of juvenile delinquency. Based on the findings, the study recommended that (a) it should be decided, that the legal basis of the prevention of juvenile delinquency should be formulated in separately (similar to the Juvenile Court Act no.3/1997) or em¬bedded into the Criminal Code; (b) it should be decided that the Juvenile Justice Act should stipulated the aims of sentencing, the guiding of sentencing, the criminal limitation age responsibility (12-18 years old); (c) it should be decided to formulate the stipulation of discretion, diversion and alternative sanction in handling juvenile offenders; (d) in the field of the managerial system, it should be provided some facilities to back up the administration of juvenile justice (included the development of manpower) in order to develop a better treatment to the young offender; (e) it should be considered of developing the Reintegrative Shaming concept as Non-Penal measure in the prevention of juvenile delinquen¬cy into a broader community and (f) it is needed to be translated the Restorative Juvenile Justice Paradigm appropriately into the Act, by stipulating the aims of sentencing, the guiding of sentencing, criminal responsibility, discretion, diver¬sion and alternative sanction and punishment and treatments as sanction system for the young offenders (the so called "double-track system") . Gejala perilaku delinkuensi anak sebagai masalah sosial yang aktual sangat menarik perhatian baik di kalangan akademisi maupun praktisi, terutama dalam upaya mereka untuk menanggulanginya. Kebijakan Kriminal sebagai usaha rasional masyarakat untuk menanggulangi kejahatan pada umumnya dan delinkuensi anak pada khususnya, dapat dilakukan lewat sarana penal dan non-penal. Pendekatan penal memiliki keterbatasan-keterbatasan karena hanya me¬ngatasi gejala tanpa menyentuh akar permasalahannya "kurieren am symptom". Pendekatan nonpenal sebagai pasangan pendekatan penal perlu diupayakan da lam penanggulangan delinkuensi anak di masyarakat. Namun demikian dirasa¬kan masih langka pemikiran-pemikiran konseptual dan konkrit pendekatan non-penal dalam penanggulangan delinkuensi anak. Sementara itu di bidang krimino¬logi, sebagai ilmu yang obyek kajiannya kejahatan, telah berkembang konsep pe mikiran yang menarik untuk dipertimbangkan dalam rangka melahirkan konsep konkrit pendekatan nonpenal penanggulangan delinkuensi anak di masyarakat —pemberian malu reintegratif (reintegrative shaming)" dan paradigma peradilan anak restoratif (restorative juvenile justice paradigm). Atas dasar latar belakang pemikiran di atas, studi ini bertujuan untuk me¬ngetahui (a) praktek penanggulangan perilaku delinkuensi anak dengan sarana penal; (b) potensi "pemberian malu reintegratif' (reintegrative shaming) sebagai sarana nonpenal penanggulangan perilaku delinkuensi anak, dan (c) peradilan anak restoratif sebagai model alternatif penanggulangan perilaku delinkuensi anak. Untuk menjawab tujuan penelitian itu, penelitian dilakukan dengan pende¬katan kriminologis (sosiologi hukum pidana), di lingkungan masyarakat Jawa Te¬ngah khususnya di Semarang dan Surakarta. Data balk data sekunder maupun primer dikumpulkan dengan cara studi pustaka, studi dokumen dan wawancara dengan responden penelitian. Responden penelitian terdiri dari anak-anak pela¬ku delinkuen yang menjadi klien BAPAS, 200 anak klien BAPAS terdiri dari 100 anak dari Semarang dan 100 anak dari Surakarta. 200 Kepala Keluarga dari anak-anak klien BAPAS tersebut, 100 Kepala Keluarga dal Semarang dan 100 Kepala Keluarga di Surakarta. Penentuan responden penelitian dilakukan dengan cara purposive (purposive technic sampling). _Data yang telah terkumpul dianalisis dengan analisis kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Temuan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut (a) praktek pe¬nanggulangan delinkuensi anak dengan sarana penal di Iokasi penelitian cende¬rung membekaskan pelabelan (stigma) pada diri anak pelaku delinkuen (secara kriminologis hal ini merupakan faktor kriminogen). (b) praktek pendekatan penal yang demikian itu disebabkan karena, kelemahan substansial UU No. 3 tahun 1997, dan tidak dipenuhinya persyaratan-persyaratan yang ditentukan oleh UU itu sendiri, seperti pejabat hukum anak profesional, tempat khusus penempatan anak-anak, (c) "pemberian malu reintegratif potensial untuk dikembangkan se¬bagai bentuk pendekatan nonpenal penanggulangan perilaku delinkuensi anak di lokasi penelitian, dan (d) peradilan anak restoratif balk dan pantas dikembangkan sebagai model alternatif penanggulangan perilaku delinkuensi anak di lokasi pe¬nelitian. Selanjutnya berdasarkan temuan penelitian dapat diusulkan rekomendasi yaitu (a) perlu dipertimbangkan pemikiran tentang perlu tidaknya undang-undang khusus tentang peradilan pidana anak atau dimasukkan dalam Kitab Undang-Un dang Hukum Pidana; (b) perlu ada perumusan tentang tujuan pemidanaan anak beserta pedoman pemidanaannya dalam pembenahan sistem hukum pidana anak masa datang. (c) perlu ada penetapan Batas usia pertanggungjawaban pi¬dana anak, antara 12-18 tahun, (d) perlu ditetapkan ketentuan tentang Diskresi Diversi dan Sanksi Alternatif dalam sistem hukum pidana anak. (e) perlu pem¬benahan aspek managerial hukum, khususnya yang menyangkut penyediaan prasarana dan sarana pendukung penyelenggaraan sistem peradilan pidana anak.(termasuk sumber daya manusianya) (f) perlu dikaji dan dikembangkan konsep "pemberian malu rein-tegratif' sebagai sarana nonpenal penanggulangan delinkuensi anak dalam lingkup masyarakat yang lebih lugs, dan (g). perlu pen¬terjemahan model paradigmatis peradilan anak restoratif dalam sistem hukum pidana anak masa datang, yang berupa antara lain, ketentuan tentang tujuan pemidanaan anak, yang selanjutnya dijabarkan kedalam kebijakan formulasi (perumusan tindak pidana anak, pertanggungjawaban pidana anak (12-18 ta¬hun), diskresi, diversi dan sanksi alternatif dan stelsel sanksi bagi anak).

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Doctor Program in Law
ID Code:28100
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:25 May 2011 09:42
Last Modified:25 May 2011 09:42

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