KEBIJAKAN KRIMINAL DI BIDANG KONSERVASI KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI

SAIFULLAH, SAIFULLAH (2003) KEBIJAKAN KRIMINAL DI BIDANG KONSERVASI KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI. Masters thesis, FAKULTAS HUKUM.

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Abstract

Studi ini bertujuan mengkaji implementasi dan perspektif kebijakan kriminal di bidang konservasi keanekaragaman hayati sedangkan paradigma penelitian yang dipergunakan dalam alur kerja penelitian disertasi ini menganut paradigma konstruktivisme. Adapun metode penelitian hukum dilakukan dengan pendekatan secara nondoktrinal yang dilengkapi pendekatan doktrinal Data di lapangan menunjukkan tingkat kerusakan, kepunahan maupun spesies baru yang ditemukan dari flora dan fauna di kawasan konservasi dilakukan dengan metode inventarisasi. Kebijakan penal diterapkan pada pelindungan, pengamanan kawasan serta pengawasan lalu lintas perdagangan satwa sedangkan kebijakan nonpenal diterapkan pada penentuan skala prioritas yaitu kegiatan-kegiatan yang mempunyai nilai urgen bagi strategi konservasi secara in-situ maupun ex-situ. Re-evaluasi kebijakan penal ditekankan pada : (1) Subjek perbuatan pidana dan pertanggungjawaban pidana meliputi prang dan badan hukum, jenis perbuatan pidana meliputi delik formil dan materiel, kualifikasi delik sebagai kejahatan, dengan sistem sanksi pidana kumulatif berupa sanksi pidana pokok sanksi pidana penjara dan pidana denda serta pidana tambahan. (2) Kebutuhan akan pengaturan perundang-undangan yang memberikan perlindungan hukum bagi flora fauna yang tidak dilindungi dan kekayaan plasma nutfah. (3) Peristilahan flora dan fauna yang dilindungi dan tidak dilindungi membawa konsekuensi dikotomi dalam bidang kebijakan konservasi, peraturan maupun aspek penegakan hukum. Dengan demikian diperlukan peninjauan kembali peristilahan tersebut dengan menggunakan metode kategorisasi yaitu penginventarisasian flora dan fauna secara menyeluruh sebagai hasil perkembangan faktual di lapangan dikaitkan dengan standar kategori dari IUCN dengan versi terakhir tahun 1994 maupun Appendix CITES (4) Reparadigma pemahaman dan posisi saksi ahli dalam penanganan kasus konservasi keanekaragaman hayati dengan sistem dari bawah (5) Penerapan . metode selektifitas kriminalisasi dalam penanganan kasus-kasus kejahatan konservasi keanekaragaman hayati yang terjadi di pesisir daerah penyangga. Kebijakan nonpenal yang dilakukan oleh pengelola disesuaikan dengan realitas di lapangan dengan studi PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal). Re-evaluasi kebijakan nonpenal terperinci dalam : (1) Strategi konservasi in-situ dan ex-situ ; (2) Program inti yang meliputi (a) kebijakan kriminal dengan pendekatan kekeluargaan (b) program pemanfaatan potensi kawasan untuk pemberdayaan ekonomi rakyat berupa aspek pemanfaatan jasa lingkungan (c) sosialisasi kaidah konservasi keanekaragaman hayati (d) reposisi paradigma partisipasi konservasi keanekaragaman hayati dan (e) memelihara dan melestarikan nilai-nilai kearifan ekologis masyarakat. Re-evaluasi di atas sebagai bahan perspektif dengan mempertimbangkan rekomendasi kebijakan kriminal dari konggres PBS tentang The Prevention of Crime and The Treatment of Offenders serta pertemuan intemasional yang mendasari pengaturan hukum nasional tentang perlindungan flora dan fauna yaitu : CITES ; Dokumen KTT Bumi di Rio de Jainero tahun 1992, Global Biodiversity Strategy tahun 1992, pertemuan intemasional para pakar hukum pidana di bidang lingkungan hidup serta studi komparatif kebijakan kriminal di bidang lingkungan hidup di negara lain. Kontribusi teoritis dan praktis dalam kebijakan kriminal di bidang konservasi keanekaragaman hayati dimaknai sebagai sebuah paradigma yang dikaji dalam konteks (1) Pengaruh internalitas dan ekstemalitas dengan prinsip-prinsip demokrasi terhadap eksistensi kebijakan kriminal dan (2) Posisi kebijakan kriminal dalam paradigma reformasi hukum di Indonesia. Kata kunci : kebijakan kriminal dan konservasi keanekaragaman hayati The study is aimed at analyzing the implementation and the perspectives of criminal policies in the field of biodiversity conservation, while the research paradigm used in the research procedures uses constructivism paradigm. The study was done by using both doctrinal and non-doctrinal approaches. The data obtained from stocktaking show the degree of both the destruction and extinction of flora and fauna, and the existence of flora and fauna new species in the conservation area. The penal policies are applied to protect, save, and control the animal trade rotation, while the non penal policies are applied to determine the priority scale of the activities which have urgent valueS for in-situ and ex-Situ conservation strategies. Reevaluation on penal policies is focused on : (1) The subject of criminal act and criminal responsibility involving a person and legal entity, which include material and formal criminal act, qualification of criminal act as crimes, as well as on cumulative criminal sanction system in the forms of ordinary punishment : imprisonment, fines and supplementary punishment (2) The need of legislation rules which determine the criminal sanction for law breakers of the unprotected flora and fauna, and legal protection for the germ plasma wealth (3) The terminology of both protected and unprotected flora and fauna resulting in dichotomy consequences in the areas of conservation policies, rules, and law enforcement. Therefore, it is necesan-y to recheck the terminology of flora and fauna using a method of categorizing for all flora and fauna becoming the resuits of the real development in the field in relation to the category standard of 1UCN using the final version of 1994 or CITES Appendix, (4) Redefining the paradigm of the comprehension about experts information and their position in handling the problems of biodiversity conservation using the bottom up system, (5) The implementation of the selection of criminalization methods in handling the criminal cases in biodiversity conservation happening in supporting shore edges. Non penal policies which have been applied by the program organiiers are adapted to the data field through PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) studies. Reevaluation on non penal policies have been elaborated in details in both (1) in-situ and ex-situ conservation strategies and (2) main programs : (a) criminal policies on the basis of familial relationship approaches, (b) the using of the potential found in the conservation area for making efficient use of the social income un the aspects of environmental profits and merits, (c) socializing the biodiversity conservation rules (d) redefining the paradigm of participation in biodiversity conservation, and (e) nurturing and preserving the valuable things of social ecology. Reevaluation mentioned above is useful for constructing perspective by considering the recommendation on criminal policies in the United Nations Congress about The Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, and international conferences on the national laws concerning flora and fauna are based on : CITES, KTT Land Document in Rio de Janeiro 1992, and Global Biodiversity Strategies of 1992, national conferences for experts of criminal laws of natural environment and comparative study in criminal policies on natural environment in other countries. The theoretical and practical contributions of criminal policies in biodiversity conservation are valued as a paradigm in the contexts of : (1) the effects of internal and external affairs based on democracy principles on the existence of criminal policy, (2) the position of criminal policy in the paradigm of law reformation in Indonesia. Key words : criminal policy and biodiversity conservation.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Doctor Program in Law
ID Code:28099
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:25 May 2011 09:38
Last Modified:25 May 2011 09:38

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