PRODUK REKAYASA GENETIKA (GMO/GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM) SEBAGAI SUBJEK PERLINDUNGAN PATEN DAN PERLINDUNGAN VARIETAS TANAMAN

ADLHIYATI, ZAKKI (2009) PRODUK REKAYASA GENETIKA (GMO/GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM) SEBAGAI SUBJEK PERLINDUNGAN PATEN DAN PERLINDUNGAN VARIETAS TANAMAN. Masters thesis, UNIVERSITAS DIPONEGORO.

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Abstract

As a result of human intellectuality, genetically modified oranism (GMO’s) need to be protected by intellectual property. In indonesia, thus protection can be gain through patent and plant variety protection (PVT). Statute Number 14 years 2001, article 7 says that the patent could protect the non biological process or microbiology prosess to produce animal or plant. The invention that include to the article 7 can be protected by patent as long as its new, have an inventive step, and industrially applicable. While the plant vaiety protection regulated in Statutes Number 29 year 2002. The PVT only could protect genetically modified organism in the range of plant variety with the qualification of new, unique, uniform, stable, and namely. Both patent and PVT could give protection after the invention was registered. In fact, the process of application need a lot of time and very expensive. Giving another problem to the protection of the genetically modified organism, the protection it self was resisted due to the negative effect from the genetically modified organism. While The negative effect to the health and environment called biosafety issues emerge, another problem also need to be solve such us the monopoly and commercialization of GMO’s through intellectual property right and the bioparacy. Basically internastional society had try to balance the commercialization principle with the other issues including health and environment. The international organizations such as World Trade Organization has create Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and The Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). While SPS addresses a variety of measures used by government to ensure that human and animal food is safe, TBT ensure the measurement taken each member not create obstacle to the trade Regarding to thus issues, Indonesia has establish Collective Decision of Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Forestry and plantation, Minister of Health, and Minister of Food and Holticultural. The aim of this provision was to guarantee food and variety safety for the human health, biological, and environment related to GMO’s use. Subsequently for the new variety which enter Indonesia there’s assessment called AMDAL (Analisa Dampak Lingkungan) before they enter to the states. Government also have control to the GMO’s that have been in the market which is done by BPOM (Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan). The control actually also has to be done by the government to the use of our biodiversity in order to prevent bioparacy in our country and also to comply the Convention on Biological Diversity that has been ratified by Indonesian Government with statutes No 5 years 1994. Subsequently government need to implement this provision including the issue of benefit sharing in order to give indegeneous people their right from the exploitation. Produk rekayasa genetika sebagai hasil dari intelektualitas manusia perlu mendapatkan perlindungan dari hak kekayaan intelektual (HKI). Di indonesia perlindungan ini diberikan oleh Paten dan Perlindungan Varietas Tanaman (PVT). Pasal 7 Undang-undang Nomer 14 tahun 2001 tentang Paten menyebutkan bahwa paten dapat memberikan perlindungan terhadap proses non biologis maupun proses mikrobiologis untuk menciptakan tanaman atau hewan. Penemuan di bidang tersebut dapat dilindungi oleh paten asalkan memenuhi persyaratan baru, mempunyai langkah inventif dan dapat diterapkan di bidang industri. Disisi lain perlindungan varietsas tanaman didasarkan pada Undang-undang Nomer 29 tahun 2002 tentang Perlindungan Varietas Tanaman. PVT hanya dapat memberikan perlindungan terhadap GMO’s dibidang tanaman dan memenuhi persyaratan baru, unik, seragam, stabil, dan diberi nama. Baik Paten dan PVT dapat memberikan perlindungan atas invensi (dalam hal ini GMO’s) asalkan penemuan tersebut didaftarkan, namun dalam faktanya, pendaftaran ini memerlukan waktu yang lama dan mahal. Disisi lain ditemukan pula permasalahan lain mengenai perlindungan GMO’s Biosafety issues, monopoli dan komersialisasi GMO’s melalui hak kekayaan intelektual serta bioparacy muncul sebagai permasalahan kompleks yang harus diselesaikan. Menyangkut permasalahan biosafety dan komersialisasi GMO’s, pada dasarnya World Trade Organization telah membentuk suatu peraturan yang dapat dijadikan acuan, yaitu Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) dan The Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). SPS menjadi dasar bagi negara anggota untuk dapat menerapkan suatu pengujian terhadap GMO’s, sedangkan TBT memastikan bahwa pengujian tersebut tidak akan menghambat perdagangan. Di indonesia sendiri dikeluarkan Keputusan Bersama empat menteri menyangkut permasalahan ini, yaitu keputusan Menteri Pertanian, Menteri Kehutanan, Menteri Kesehatan, dan Menteri Pangan dan Holtikulura, selain itu terdapat pula AMDAL (Analisis mengenai Dampak Lingkungan) sebagai suatu pengujian terhadap GMO’s yang memasuki Indonesia, sedangkan terhadap GMO’s yang sudah ada di pasaran, pemerintah masih tetap melakukan pengawasan yang dilakukan oleh BPOM (Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan). Pada dasarnya pengawasan juga perlu dilakukan oleh pemerintah terhadap penggunaan dan pemanfaatan sumber daya hayati yang ada di wilayah Indonesia. Pengawasan ini ditujukan untuk mencegah bioparacy dan menerapkan ketentuan Convention on Biological Diversity yang telah diratifikasi Indonesia melalui Undang-undang Nomer 5 tahun 1994. Selanjutnya pemerintah juga perlu menegakkan undang-undang ini, termasuk ketentuan tentang benefit sharing sehingga masyarakat lokal bisa mendapatkan apa yang menjadi hak mereka.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Law
ID Code:25011
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:30 Dec 2010 08:14
Last Modified:30 Dec 2010 08:14

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