EFEKTIVITAS SISTEM ZONASI BAGI PERLINDUNGAN TERUMBU KARANG DARI STRESSOR ANTROPOGENIK DI TAMAN NASIONAL KEPULAUAN SERIBU

Januar, Hedi Indra (2010) EFEKTIVITAS SISTEM ZONASI BAGI PERLINDUNGAN TERUMBU KARANG DARI STRESSOR ANTROPOGENIK DI TAMAN NASIONAL KEPULAUAN SERIBU. Masters thesis, Magister Ilmu Lingkungan.

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Stressor antropogenik dari berbagai non-point source dapat menjadi ancaman terhadap kawasan konservasi terumbu karang di Taman Nasional Kepulauan Seribu (TNKpS). Berdasarkan hal tersebut, maka riset bertujuan untuk mengkaji efektivitas sistem zonasi bagi perlindungan terumbu karang dari stressor antropogenik di TNKpS. Evaluasi efektivitas meliputi indikator pada fisika-kimia air (stressor nutrifikasi yaitu fosfat, nitrat, nitrit, dan amonia, serta salinitas pH, DO, suhu, dan arus), biologis terumbu karang, dan aspek sosial masyarakat lokal (persepsi, perilaku, dan aspirasi masyarakat lokal). Pendekatan analisis terumbu karang dilakukan dengan metabolomik lingkungan menggunakan biomarker Nephthea sp. Penggunaan biomarker yang merupakan senyawa bioaktif tersebut diduga akan memberikan gambaran kondisi terumbu karang serta keterlindungan kekayaan biopotensi produksi plasma nutfah biota terumbu karang dalam kawasan konservasi. Analisis fisika-kimia air dilakukan secara in situ menggunakan instrumentasi portable. Analisis biologi tutupan karang dilakukan menggunakan transek garis sepanjang 30 m, sedangkan kadar biomarker Nephthea sp. dikuantifikasi berdasarkan metode High Performance Liquid Chromatography dan MTT. Analisis kualitatif aspek sosial masyarakat dilakukan dengan wawancara dalam community forum approach bersama key informan. Hasil dari penelitian ini menemukan bahwa diduga sistem zonasi di TNKpS belum efektif. Lingkungan perairan dan biologi TNKpS tidak berasosiasi dengan zonasi namun terdegradasi dari wilayah tengah (zona inti III dan wisata) hingga memburuk ke arah sisi terluar TNKpS. Selain itu, penelaahan terhadap aspek sosial menunjukan bahwa masyarakat lokal tidak secara optimal berperan serta dalam pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan area konservasi. Fisibilitas aplikasi metabolomik lingkungan menggunakan Biomarker Nephthea sp. sebagai variabel indikator biologi terumbu karang diperlihatkan dengan adanya korelasi yang signifikan antara biomarker dan kuantitas tutupan karang dan pola peta kontur tiap variabel pada analisis metabolomik. Berdasarkan hasil uji efektivitas, analisis SWOT merumuskan bahwa prioritas strategi dalam mengoptimasi keterlindungan terumbu karang TNKpS adalah revisi sistem zonasi sehingga sesuai dengan kondisi biofisik lingkungan TNKpS dan berbasis pemberdayaan masyarakat lokal dalam pengelolaan. Selain itu, optimasi keterlindungan dapat juga melakukan dengan pencegahan stressor agar tidak mencemari wilayah TNKpS, yaitu melalui penerapan UU LH No. 32/2009 dan pengelolaan limbah lokal. KATA KUNCI: Zonasi Taman Nasional, Terumbu Karang, Stressor Antropogenik, Kepulauan Seribu, metabolomik, biomarker, antipredator, Nephthea sp. ABSTRACT Non-point sources anthropogenic stressors could be a threat to coral reefs conservation area in Seribu Islands National Parks / Taman Nasional Kepulauan Seribu (TNKpS). Based on that, than this research aimed to assess the TNKpS’s zonation system effectiveness to protect coral reefs from anthropogenic stressors. Effectiveness evaluation been based on physical-chemical waters (nutrification stressors, which were phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia, and also salinity, pH, DO, temperature, and current), biological coral reefs, and social aspects of local communities (perception, behavior, and aspiration of local communities trough coral reefs natural resources and zonation system in TNKpS). Biological coral reefs analysis had been done using environmental metabolomics approach, using biomarker from Nepthea sp. The approach of using bioactive compounds as biomarker was likely going to gave a view of coral reefs condition and the biopotency protectiveness that being produced by coral reefs germ-plasm in conservation area. Analysis of physical-chemical waters had been done by in situ analysis using portable instrumentation. Biological analysis of live coral cover had been done by 30 m line transect. Meanwhile, biomarker content from Nephthea sp. had been analyzed in the lab using high performance liquid chromatography and MTT methods. On the other hands, qualitative analysis aspects of local communities had been done by interview of key informan in community forum approach. Results of the study showed that zonation system in this area was not effective. The waters and biological environments of TNKpS were likely not associated to zonation system but degradated from center area (nucleus III and recreation zone) trough the outside area of national park. This might be a problem as there are nucleus zone I and II in northern side that had low quality of environment. On the other hand, social economy aspect analysis showed that local communities had not been optimally empowered at utilization and management of the conservation area. Application visibility of environmental metabolomic approach using biomarker from Nephthea sp. as coral reefs biological indicator showed by significant corelation between biomarker and live coral cover quantity and contour pattern maps of each metabolomic variables. Based on efectiveness assessments, than SWOT analysis concluded the recommendation to optimize the coral reefs protection in TNKpS would be zonation system revision which synchronize the biophysical environment of TNKpS and being based by local community empowerment in TNKpS management. Beside of that, stressors prevention to contaminate TNKpS area also could be done using implementation of environmental law 32/2009 and local effluent management. KEYWORDS: Zonation of National Park, Coral Reefs, Anthropogenic Stressor, Seribu Islands, metabolomic, biomarker, Nephthea sp.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:24710
Deposited By:ms Hastomo Agus
Deposited On:15 Dec 2010 14:39
Last Modified:15 Dec 2010 14:39

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