PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN KOMANDO (COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY) DALAM PELANGGARAN HAM BERAT (STUDI KASUS KEJAHATAN TERHADAP KEMANUSIAAN DI INDONESIA)

SETIYONO, JOKO (2010) PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN KOMANDO (COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY) DALAM PELANGGARAN HAM BERAT (STUDI KASUS KEJAHATAN TERHADAP KEMANUSIAAN DI INDONESIA). Masters thesis, UNIVERSITAS DIPONEGORO.

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Penegakkan hukum atas pelanggaran HAM berat kategori kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan berdasarkan prinsip pertanggungjawaban komando, tidak hanya merupakan urusan domestik dari suatu negara, namun telah menjadi concern “masyarakat internasional” untuk memutus mata rantai praktik impunity. Permasalahan yang relevan untuk dikaji lebih lanjut dalam disertasi ini adalah (1). Urgensi pemerintah Indonesia membuat UU No. 26 tahun 2000 tentang Pengadilan HAM sebagai dasar hukum penuntutan pertanggungjawaban pidana komandan atau atasan dalam pelanggaran HAM yang berat kategori kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan; (2). Bagaimana penerapan prinsip pertanggungjawaban pidana komandan atau atasan dalam pelanggaran HAM berat kategori kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan pada peradilan HAM di Indonesia pada khususnya maupun peradilan (HAM) internasional pada umumnya. Penelitian dalam disertasi ini merupakan penelitian doktrinal, dengan menggunakan metode pendekatan yang bersifat yuridis normatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui studi pustaka dan dokumenter terhadap bahan hukum primer maupun bahan hukum sekunder yang terkait dengan substansi disertasi. Setelah dilakukan proses identifikasi dan klasifikasi, dilakukan analisis kualitatif atas data-data tersebut. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan terhadap permasalahan pertama di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pertanggungjawaban negara atas pelanggaran HAM berat sangat terkait dengan hak suatu negara untuk melaksanakan yurisdiksi dalam batas wilayahnya. Urgensi pemerintah membuat UU No. 26 tahun 2000 tentang pengadilan HAM antara lain adalah : sebagai antisipasi pembentukan peradilan internasional sebagaimana pernah dilakukan PBB di Yugoslavia maupun Rwanda; mengisi kekosongan peraturan hukum. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan permasalahan kedua, dapat disimpulkan bahwa di Indonesia, para pelaku pelanggaran HAM berat kategori kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan yang dituntut berdasarkan prinsip pertanggungjawaban komando telah diputus bebas dengan alasan para pelaku bukan bawahan para terdakwa; para terdakwa tidak mempunyai hubungan hierarki garis komando dan pengendalian yang efektif terhadap para pelaku yang bukan anak buah atau bawahannya. Pertanggungjawaban komando atas pelanggaran HAM berat kategori kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan telah dipraktikan oleh lembaga peradilan internasional, mulai dari Nuremberg Trial di Jerman, Tokyo Tribunal di Jepang, ICTY di Yugoslavia dan ICTR di Rwanda. Unsur pokok pertanggungjawaban komando adalah adanya hubungan subordinasi antara komandan atau atasan dengan bawahannya; adanya pengetahuan komandan atau atasan bahwa anak buahnya akan, sedang atau telah melakukan pelanggaran; komandan atau atasan dengan kekuasaan yang dimilikinya gagal melakukan pencegahan atau menghentikan atau menindak dan menyerahkan pelaku kepada yang berwajib. Kata kunci : Tanggung Jawab Komando, Pelanggaran HAM berat, Peradilan HAM ABSTRACT The legal attempt enforcing law against the gross violation of human right based on the commander responsibility principle, is not only a domestic concern of a nation but it already became an international concern, in order to cut loose the chain impunity practice. The relevant problems to be further concern in this dissertation are : 1) The Indonesian Government urgency in enacted the Law number 26 year 2000 of The Human Rights Court, as the basic legal prosecution for any penal responsibility by commander or any superior officer for violating the human rights which become the gross violation of human rights; 2) the applied of the commander responsibility principle toward the human rights court in Indonesia and in international court. This is a doctrinal research that use a legal normative approached. The data collection technique in this research is using secondary data (book and documentary study) toward primary legal data and secondary legal data which relevant to the dissertation substance. After those data has been identified and classified, they were being analyzed using qualitative method. The first research result for the first problem is that the Indonesia Government has a power to enacted a law thus to enforce it by prosecute and put into trial anybody who violated the human rights, and this power goes with its sovereignty. One of the urgency to enacted the Law number 26 year 2000 of The Human Right Court as the ground to prosecuted military commander, chief police officer and any civilian leader with criminal responsibility in gross violation of human rights being done by their team member/dependant who were under the effective chain of command by the Indonesian Government is to anticipate the formation of International Criminal Tribunal For the Rwanda (1993) and International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (1994) by the United Nation Security Council and also to fulfill the legal loophole in human rights regulation in Indonesia. The second research result for the first problem is a knowledge that all of those defendants who were charged for gross violation of human rights by commander responsibility principle, were awarded with a free sentence and those sentences were all binding by law. The argument for that sentences was because the defendants were not in superior position for those actors who done the gross violation of human rights, defendants did not have any hierarchy line of command and did not have any effective control for those who committed gross violation of human rights. The main elements in commander responsibility theory that applied in gross violation of human rights court were based on the decision of International Military Tribunal Nuremberg in Germany and International Military Tribunal Tokyo in Japan, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, that the action must showed similarity with elements such as : the subordination relationship between commander and his member or superior inferior relationship; there is an acknowledge by commander or superior for his members were, subject to, or already did an actual or constructive violation of human rights; the commander or the superior with all of his power were failed to hindered, stopped or punished and transferred the violators to the authorities. Keywords : Commander Responsibility, Gross Violation of Human Rights, Human Rights Courts.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Doctor Program in Law
ID Code:23978
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:11 Nov 2010 13:25
Last Modified:11 Nov 2010 13:25

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