KAJIAN KEBUTUHAN PEMBANGUNAN TERMINAL KAYU TERPADU SEBAGAI PENUNJANG KEBERLANGSUNGAN INDUSTRI KAYU DI JAWA TENGAH

MALIK, JAMALUDIN (2007) KAJIAN KEBUTUHAN PEMBANGUNAN TERMINAL KAYU TERPADU SEBAGAI PENUNJANG KEBERLANGSUNGAN INDUSTRI KAYU DI JAWA TENGAH. Masters thesis, program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Industri pengolahan kayu dan mebel (IPKM) Jawa Tengah saat ini menghadapi permasalahan kekurangan bahan baku kayu. Permasalahan ini mengakibatkan semakin sulitnya akses industri terutama industri kecil-menengah untuk mendapatkan bahan baku kayu. Di sisi lain masih diyakini bahwa pasokan bahan baku kayu masih cukup besar dan masalahnya adalah pada distribusi yang dikuasai oleh para pedagang kayu. Hal ini memunculkan ide untuk membangun terminal kayu. Mengingat biaya investasi untuk pembangunan terminal kayu sangat besar sedangkan akar permasalahan IPKM Jawa Tengah sesungguhnya belum diketahui, maka menarik untuk dikaji apakah terminal kayu memang dibutuhkan untuk dibangun sebagai sarana penunjang IPKM Jawa Tengah. Kajian dilakukan melalui penelitian dengan metode deskriptif yang bersifat eksploratif melalui pengumpulan data kuantitatif dan kualitatif, baik sekunder maupun primer yang dilakukan dengan depth interview terhadap responden dengan kriteria tertentu yang dipilih secara purposive sampling. Analisis dilakukan terhadap aspek pasokan dan permintaan bahan baku kayu beserta permasalahannya, aspek distribusi, aspek fungsi terminal kayu dan kebijakan untuk melihat kemungkinan pembangunan terminal kayu yang dibandingkan dengan kebutuhannya menurut persepsi responden. Berdasarkan analisis pasokan dan kebutuhan bahan baku kayu diketahui bahwa apabila Terminal Kayu Terpadu (TKT) dibangun saat ini maka akan kesulitan untuk mendapatkan pasokan baik dari luar Jawa maupun impor karena di wilayah utama penghasil kayu pun mengalami defisit bahan baku kayu (BBK) sebasar 50 juta m3/tahun dan secara global defisit BBK mencapai > 740 juta m3/tahun. Dari analisis distribusi diketahui bahwa TKT berpotensi menambah biaya angkut dan mekanisme pergerakan kayu secara fisik juga tidak praktis kecuali terminal kayu satu lokasi dengan pelabuhan pendaratan. Jika jumlah sebaran IPHHK dipertimbangkan sebagai faktor utama arahan lokasi rencana pembangunan TKT maka rencana pembangunannya di Semarang kurang tepat karena daerah-daerah yang sangat tinggi atau tinggi jumlah unit IPHHK adalah Kab. Jepara atau Kab. Cilacap. Apabila TKT akan memfasilitasi industri yang menggunakan kayu dari hutan tanaman, maka rencana pembangunan terminal kayu di Semarang pun kurang tepat karena daerah yang paling tinggi industrinya menggunakan kayu dari hutan tanaman berdasarkan jumlah unit adalah Jepara, Cilacap dan Brebes. Sedangkan berdasarkan kapasitas produksinya, tiga daerah terbesar yang industri primernya menggunakan kayu tanaman adalah Temanggung, Banjarnegara dan Cilacap. Jika sebaran industri mebel sebagai arahan lokasi terminal kayu maka daerah dimana sebaran industri mebelnya dominan dapat dijadikan pertimbangan lokasi. Dalam hal ini sebaran klaster industri mebel layak dipertimbangkan sebagai arahan lokasi terminal kayu. Kota Semarang termasuk daerah yang memiliki klaster industri mebel, namun bukan yang utama. Mengacu pada peraturan yang ada (Permenhut No. 55 & 51/2006 dan Perpres No. 77/2007), peluang pembangunan dengan fungsi yang diharapkan yaitu dapat melayani pasokan sesuai kebutuhan, adalah sangat terbatas. Yang paling memungkinkan adalah terminal kayu sama fungsinya sebagai pedagang perantara.Secara finansial pembangunan TKT tidak ekonomis dan kurang menarik bagi perusahaan.Dengan demikian, saat ini pembangunan TKT tidak dibutuhkan. Wood-working and furniture industries (WWFI) in Central Java are currently faced with raw material shortage. This situation has inflicted difficulty on related industries to gain access to wood raw material, particularly those of small and middlescale entrepreneurs. In other hand, wood material supply is surely still adequate, but the problem arouses on its distribution which is greatly controlled by wood traders. This has spurred an idea to establish wood terminals. The fact that investment cost for that establishment is tremendously expensive, while the problem cores faced by the Central Java’s WWFI is still known, then an idea occurs to assess whether or not wood-terminal establishment is indeed necessary as the supporting facilities for those Central Java’s WWFI. In relevant, the assessment was conducted using a descriptive method, employing explorative means in collecting the qualitative and quantitative data, either primary or secondary. Those data were collected through an in-depth interview with respondents who were previously selected through a purposive sampling. The analysis was performed on the supply and demand aspects of wood raw material with the scrutiny on problems, distribution characteristics, function aspects in wood terminals, and related policies to look into the possibility of wood-terminal establishment compared with its requirements that corresponded to the respondent perception. Based on the analysis results about the supply and demand of wood materials, it found out that if integrated wood terminals (IWT) were to be built on this occasion, then difficulty that might occur was to procure the wood supply from outside Java as well as from import. This is because the main wood-producing region encountered a deficit in the available wood raw material as much as 50 million m3/year or globally over 740 million m3/year. Results of distribution analysis revealed that IWT could potentially increase transportation cost, and also physical movement mechanisms seemed impractical unless the IWT shared with the landing port in one location. If the distribution number of primary wood-processing industries (PWPI) were considered as a main guiding factor of IWT’s establishment plan, then the plan located in Semarang would seem inappropriate. The reason was that regions with numerous PWPI are in Jepara or Cilacap regencies. If the IWT wanted to facilitate industries that use wood materials from plantation forest (PF), then the establishment plan in Semarang would not be appropriate either because the region where the PWPI consumes the greates amounts of wood materials from PF based on number of units are situated in Jepara, Cilacap, and Brebes. Meanwhile, based on production capacity, the region where the PWPI consumes wood from the PF the greatest are in Temanggung, Banjarnegera, and Cilacap. Further, if the distribution of furniture industries were used as location guides, then the regions with the dominant distribution of those industries could be considered as the IWT location. Semarang belongs to a region that has the cluster of furniture industries, despite not being the main. Referring to the current regulations (Ministry of Forestry Decree No. 55 and 51/2006 and Presidential Law No. 77/2007), the chance of establishment with the expected function able to deal with the wood supply that corresponded to its demand is very limited. The establishment with the most likely is the IWT which have the similar function to the intermediary traders. To sum up, the IWT establishment is financially not economic and not interesting. Therefore, its establishment currently is not needed.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Urban and Regional Planning
ID Code:17950
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:28 Jul 2010 09:38
Last Modified:28 Jul 2010 09:38

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