MENUJU MODEL PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN PERBATASAN DARATAN ANTAR NEGARA (Studi Kasus : Kecamatan Paloh dan Sajingan Besar Kabupaten Sambas, Kalimantan Barat)

H U S N A D I , H U S N A D I (2006) MENUJU MODEL PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN PERBATASAN DARATAN ANTAR NEGARA (Studi Kasus : Kecamatan Paloh dan Sajingan Besar Kabupaten Sambas, Kalimantan Barat). Masters thesis, Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Both of Paloh and Sajingan Besar sub-district in Sambas Regency are number of region that was located contiguous to the neighbor country Malaysia (Sarawak). Due to a strategic position, natural resources endowment, natural exotic beach along west coast, and natural tropical forest, but this sub-region do not become a priority by development actors. Hence, several problems have been appears in this region, such as poverty, economic disparity and isolated area. Since there is no a comprehensive concept related to cross-border development, it caused emerged un-planning concept in term of regional development commonly in cross-border region. It will be implied to degradation of natural resource endowment, environmental quality, worsen prosperity, process of de-humanity, de-culturalization and growth towards to disintegration process particular in term economically. This study discussed the clossed linkages between PALSA border area of Sambas District and State of Sarawak of Malaysia, which are predicted to have a strong influence on the regional development of the common border area. The choice of the area as the case of study is supported by the fact that the northern border of the Sambas District and West Kalimantan Province commonly tends to become the hinterland of several cities and towns in Sarawak-Malaysia. That matters related to lack of both social and economic insfstructure that have been caused inhabitants tend to be oriented economically to Sarawak. Analytical result to several models of cross-border development’s lesson learned in many countries shows that there are four models in terms of cross-border development: first, remote area in one country tend toward in economically with its neighbor country; second, country which better in economic tend toward its neighbor which un-develop; third, each there is no inter-action economically each other, border-line function as strictly area; and fourth, both side region in adjacent country has been emerging cooperation and tend toward to integrated economic region. Therefore, based on the type of models, current condition in PALSA cross-border region is still known into first type empirically that will be brought toward to better condition as suggested by the type model of fourth. However, this study elaborated that such regard to objective condition has obtained that suitable model development conducted in PALSA border area is model of agropolitan. This model was suggested based on analytical result regarding empirical condition. More over, even thought that region was owned many comparative advantage, but all of them has not competitive yet. Furthermore, inhabitants tend to lack of role in term of cross-border trading with their neighbors because of its worsen bargaining position. Despite in social interaction emerged high cultural affinity. Kecamatan Paloh dan Sajingan Besar (PALSA) di Kabupaten Sambas merupakan salah satu wilayah yang berbatasan langsung dengan negara Malaysia (Sarawak). Sebagai wilayah yang strategis, kaya akan sumber daya alam, memiliki panorama alam laut, pantai dan hutan yang indah dan eksotis, namun keberadaannya selama ini kurang mendapat perhatian pihak-pihak yang berkepentingan dalam pembangunan wilayah. Akibatnya antara lain adalah munculnya banyak permasalahan di kawasan ini, seperti kesenjangan ekonomi, ketertinggalan pembangunan, dan keterisolasian kawasan. Ketiadaan konsep yang jelas, menyebabkan pembangunan kawasan perbatasan terkesan tidak terencana dengan baik dengan implikasi degradasi sumber daya alam dan kualitas lingkungan, serta tidak tercapainya peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat, terjadinya proses dehumanisasi (peminggiran masyarakat), dan dekulturisasi, serta secara makro mengarah pada disintegrasi wilayah (terutama secara ekonomi). Dalam studi ini dibahas keterkaitan yang diperkirakan mempunyai pengaruh besar terhadap perkembangan kawasan perbatasan PALSA-Sarawak. Dipilihnya kawasan perbatasan PALSA-Sarawak sebagai kasus studi dilatarbelakangi oleh adanya fenomena atau gejala, dimana wilayah perbatasan PALSA juga menjadi daerah belakang dari sistem pusat-pusat permukiman yang ada di Sarawak selain wilayah yang ada di Kalbar secara umum. Hal ini dikaitkan dengan keterbatasan infrastruktur sosial dan ekonomi yang telah menyebabkan masyarakat cenderung berorientasi secara ekonomi ke Sarawak. Hasil kajian terhadap berbagai lesson learned model pengembangan kawasan perbatasan di berbagai negara ditemukan empat tipologi model berdasarkan kecenderungan orientasi pengembangan ekonomi wilayahnya, yaitu: pertama, wilayah terbelakang suatu negara berorientasi ke negara tetangga yang lebih maju; kedua, wilayah negara yang lebih maju berorientasi ke wilayah negara tetangganya yang relatif tertinggal; ketiga, masing-masing negara tidak saling berorientasi satu sama lain; dan keempat, kedua wilayah antarnegara saling bekerjasama dan mengarah kepada integrasi secara ekonomi. Berdasarkan tipologi ini, kawasan perbatasan PALSA yang secara empiris masuk dalam tipologi pertama diarahkan menuju kepada tipologi model keempat. Hasil analisis mengungkapkan bahwa model pengembangan agropolitan merupakan salah satu model yang sesuai untuk dikembangkan di kawasan PALSA sesuai tipologi model keempat diatas. Pemilihan model ini didasarkan pada potensi dan kondisi empiris yang ada bahwa kawasan PALSA yang mempunyai keunggulan komparatif (comparative advantage) namun belum memiliki daya saing (competitive advantage), sehingga masyarakat di perbatasan tidak memiliki posisi tawar dan cenderung berada pada posisi yang lemah dalam interaksi perdagangan lintas batas dengan Sarawak meskipun secara sosial budaya hubungan mereka sangat erat.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Urban and Regional Planning
ID Code:17459
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 1
Deposited On:23 Jul 2010 13:44
Last Modified:23 Jul 2010 13:44

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