FAKTOR – FAKTOR RISIKO YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEMATIAN MATERNAL (STUDI KASUS DI KABUPATEN CILACAP) (ARULITA IKA FIBRIANA RISK FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MATERNAL MORTALITY (CASE STUDY AT CILACAP DISTRICT)

FIBRIANA, ARULITA IKA (2007) FAKTOR – FAKTOR RISIKO YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEMATIAN MATERNAL (STUDI KASUS DI KABUPATEN CILACAP) (ARULITA IKA FIBRIANA RISK FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MATERNAL MORTALITY (CASE STUDY AT CILACAP DISTRICT). Masters thesis, program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Latar Belakang : Angka Kematian Maternal (AKM) di Indonesia masih cukup tinggi, yaitu sekitar 307 per 100.000 kelahiran hidup (SDKI 2002 /2003). AKM merupakan indikator status kesehatan ibu, terutama risiko kematian bagi ibu saat hamil dan melahirkan. McCarthy dan Maine mengemukakan 3 faktor yang mempengaruhi kematian maternal yaitu determinan dekat, determinan antara dan determinan jauh. Kabupaten Cilacap merupakan salah satu kabupaten di Propinsi Jawa Tengah yang memiliki kasus kematian maternal cukup tinggi, sehingga diperlukan studi untuk mengetahui faktor – faktor risiko yang mempengaruhi kematian maternal di Kabupaten Cilacap. Tujuan : Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui faktor – faktor risiko yang mempengaruhi kematian maternal, yang terdiri dari determinan dekat, determinan antara dan determinan jauh. Metode : Jenis penelitian adalah observasional dengan studi kasus kontrol, dilengkapi dengan kajian kualitatif mengenai kejadian kematian maternal serta upaya penurunan angka kematian maternal di kabupaten Cilacap. Jumlah sampel 52 kasus dan 52 kontrol. Analisis data dilakukan secara univariat, bivariat dengan chi square test, multivariat dengan metode regresi logistik ganda. Kajian kualitatif dilakukan dengan metode indepth interview dan dilakukan analisis secara deskriptif, disajikan dalam bentuk narasi. Hasil : Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko yang mempengaruhi kematian maternal berdasarkan analisis multivariat adalah komplikasi kehamilan (OR = 147,1; 95% CI : 2,4 – 1938,3; p = 0,002), komplikasi persalinan (OR = 49,2; 95% CI : 1,8 – 1827,7; p = 0,027), komplikasi nifas (OR = 84,9; 95% CI : 1,8 – 3011,4; p = 0,034), riwayat penyakit ibu (OR = 210,2; 95% CI : 13,4 – 5590,4; p = 0,002), riwayat KB (OR = 33,1; 95% CI : 13,0 – 2361,6; p = 0,038), dan keterlambatan rujukan (OR = 50,8; 95% CI : 2,5 – 488,1; p = 0,003). Probabilitas ibu untuk mengalami kematian maternal dengan memiliki faktor – faktor risiko tersebut di atas adalah 99%. Hasil kajian kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa kematian maternal dipengaruhi berbagai faktor seperti keterlambatan rujukan, terutama keterlambatan pertama, rendahnya tingkat pendidikan ibu, rendahnya tingkat pendapatan keluarga dan belum dapat dilaksanakannya Gerakan Sayang Ibu (GSI) secara optimal di seluruh wilayah kecamatan sebagai upaya pemerintah dalam menurunkan kematian maternal. Saran : perlu pengenalan dini tanda – tanda komplikasi dalam kehamilan, persalinan dan nifas, persiapan rujukan, perencanaan kehamilan, pelaksanaan GSI secara optimal. Background : The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Indonesia remains high, i.e. approximately 307 per 100.000 live birth (SDKI 2002 /2003). MMR is an indicator of mother’s health, especially the risk of being death for a mother while pregnant and delivery. McCarthy and Maine shows three factors that influence maternal mortality, i.e. proximate determinant, intermediate determinant and distant determinant. Cilacap district is one of district in the province of Central Java which have maternal mortality case still high, so it is necessary to study the risk factors that influence maternal mortality in that district. Objective : The study was carried out to know the risk factors that influence maternal mortality, which consist of proximate determinant, intermediate determinant and distant determinant. Methods : This was an observational research using case control study, completed with qualitative study about the occurrence of maternal mortality and the effort to decrease MMR in Cilacap district. Number of samples was 52 cases and 52 controls. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis, bivariate analysis with chi square test, multivariate analysis with multiple logistic regression. Qualitative study was done by the method of indepth interview and were analyzed by descriptive analysis and presented in narration. Result : The result showed that risk factors that influence maternal mortality according to multivariate analysis were pregnancy complication (OR = 147,1; 95% CI : 2,4 – 1938,3; p = 0,002), delivery complication (OR = 49,2; 95% CI : 1,8 – 1827,7; p = 0,027), post delivery complication (OR = 84,9; 95% CI : 1,8 – 3011,4; p = 0,034), history of mother’s illness (OR = 210,2; 95% CI : 13,4 – 5590,4; p = 0,002), history of using contraception (OR = 33,1; 95% CI : 13,0 – 2361,6; p = 0,038), and late referral (OR = 50,8; 95% CI : 2,5 – 488,1; p = 0,003). Probability of mother to have risk of maternal mortality with those all risk factors above is 99%. The result of qualitative study showed that many factors influenced maternal mortality like late referral, especially first late referral, low education of the mother, low of family income, and the GSI activities not well done yet in each subdistricts. Suggestion : This research recommended that it is necessary to detect signs of pregnancy complication, delivery complication, and post delivery complication early, referral preparation, pregnancy planning and optimizing GSI activities.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Epidemiology
ID Code:16634
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:14 Jul 2010 08:01
Last Modified:14 Jul 2010 08:01

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