MODEL MONITORING DAN EVALUASI PEMBERLAKUAN STANDAR MUTU PERKERASAN JALAN BERBASIS PENDEKATAN SISTEMIK

Mulyono, Agus Taufik (2007) MODEL MONITORING DAN EVALUASI PEMBERLAKUAN STANDAR MUTU PERKERASAN JALAN BERBASIS PENDEKATAN SISTEMIK. Masters thesis, program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Kerusakan struktural perkerasan jalan di Indonesia sering terjadi sebelum umur layanan selesai. Peningkatan investasi pengelolaan perkerasan jalan juga tidak menunjukkan hubungan linier positip terhadap pencapaian mutu perkerasan jalan di berbagai ruas jalan nasional dan propinsi. Kondisi ini memunculkan pertanyaan mendasar tentang bagaimana sesungguhnya pemberlakuan standar mutu perkerasan jalan tersebut dimonitor dan dievaluasi. Meskipun saat ini sudah banyak konsep model untuk mengendalikan implementasi standar mutu tetapi konsep tersebut belum menjelaskan hierarki setiap elemen dari bagian-bagian sistem pemberlakuannya secara komprehensif. Oleh karenanya diperlukan monitoring dan evaluasi pemberlakuan standar mutu yang dibangun sebagai struktur logic model yang hierarkis, komprehensif dan sistemik sebagai salah satu alternatif untuk menyempurnakan kekurangan beberapa konsep model yang sudah ada. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengembangkan suatu model monitoring dan evaluasi pemberlakuan standar mutu perkerasan jalan nasional dan propinsi di Indonesia. Pengembangan model tersebut dilakukan secara deduktif dengan pendekatan sistemik berbasis logic model dengan metoda Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Pendekatan ini untuk merepresentasikan struktur dan hierarki berbagai subsistem termasuk faktor, variabel beserta indikator dan parameternya dalam suatu rangkaian sistemik: input-process-output-outcome-impact. Selanjutnya konsep model tersebut diverifikasi dan divalidasi dengan empat tahapan survai pendapat pakar lebih dari 200 responden yang tersebar di 28 propinsi di Indonesia dengan latar belakang praktisi, akademisi, dan pakar di bidang perkerasan jalan. Survai pertama mengidentifikasi kinerja pemberlakuan standar mutu saat ini dan kerusakan struktural perkerasan jalan. Survai kedua mengidentifikasi dan memverifikasi 14 faktor, 131 variabel beserta indikator dan parameternya yang mempengaruhi pemberlakuan standar mutu. Survai ketiga adalah memverifikasi pengelompokan variabel dari 131 menjadi 50 variabel dan memvalidasi tingkat pengaruh variabel. Survai keempat adalah memvalidasi tingkat perbandingan kepentingan antar 50 variabel terhadap faktor pemberlakuan standar mutu. Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan kerusakan struktural perkerasan jalan nasional dan propinsi banyak terjadi pada awal umur pelayanannya karena ketidaktepatan prosedur (tatacara) pelaksanaan dan pengawasan kualitasnya terhadap standar mutu yang digunakan. Secara umum, jenis kerusakan struktural tersebut adalah: (i) permukaan perkerasan hasil pembangunan jalan baru mengalami penurunan (ambles) dan bergelombang, dan (ii) permukaan perkerasan hasil peningkatan dan pemeliharaan berkala mengalami retak (cracking) dan berlubang (pothole). Monitoring dan evaluasi pemberlakuan standar mutu perkerasan jalan dimodelkan dalam struktur hierarki yang komprehensif berbasis pendekatan sistemik, terdiri atas 5 (lima) subsistem, 14 faktor dan 50 variabel. Bobot subsistem terhadap sistem pemberlakuan standar mutu, adalah: (i) Input 32,5% terdiri atas: sumber daya manusia pengendali mutu (15,1%), utilisasi alat uji (7,9%), utilisasi bahan uji (6,4%), dan tampilan format standar (3,1%); (ii) Process 19,7% terdiri atas: sosialisasi (8,0%), implementasi (5,9%), manajemen data (3,1%), dan distribusi (2,8%); (iii) Output 19,1% terdiri atas: tingkat pencapaian mutu (11,2%) dan tingkat pencapaian sosialisasi (7,9%); (iv) Outcome 15,0% terdiri atas: tingkat kekuatan struktural (9,0%) dan tingkat kekuatan fungsional (6,0%); Impact 13,7% terdiri atas: tingkat kemantapan jalan (7,8%) dan tingkat kenyamanan jalan (5,9%). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 5 (lima) faktor dominan yang signifikan mempengaruhi pemberlakuan standar mutu secara sistemik, yaitu sumber daya manusia, sosialisasi standar mutu, pencapaian mutu, kekuatan struktural dan kemantapan jalan. Dalam penelitian ini, hasil pemodelan tersebut ditransformasikan menjadi perangkat lunak berbasis pemrograman Delphi bernama MESTAM_JALAN (Monitoring dan Evaluasi Pemberlakuan STAndar viii Mutu JALAN). Perangkat lunak ini digunakan untuk menghitung kecenderungan pengaruh variabel terhadap faktor pemberlakuan standar mutu dan merumuskan solusi dan rekomendasi untuk memperbaiki kinerja pemberlakuan standar mutu perkerasan jalan. Secara praktis, hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan untuk menunjukkan hasil evaluasi mutu perkerasan jalan antar ruas jalan dalam wilayah tertentu sebagai dasar perbaikan penanganan jalan nasional dan propinsi di Indonesia. Structural damages of road pavement in Indonesia often occur before end of its service life. Increased investment for managing road pavement does not show positive linear relationship towards quality achievement of road pavement in many sections of national and provincial road networks. This condition leads to a fundamental question of how application of quality standards for road pavement is monitored and evaluated. Though, there are some conceptual models for controlling application of quality standards however those models do not describe comprehensively hierarchy of every single element of the application of quality standard systems. Therefore, a hierarchycal, comprehensive, and systemic monitoring and evaluation system for the application of quality standards based on logic model structure is required as one of alternatives to improve previous existing models. This research aims to develop a model of monitoring and evaluation system of application of road pavement quality standards application for national and provincial road networks in Indonesia. The development of the conceptual model was undertaken deductively using a systemic approach of logic model and structured into Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). This approach is to represent structure and hierarchy of subsystems including factors, variables and indicators as well as parameters in the form of systemic chains: input-process-output-outcome-impact. Furthermore, the conceptual model was verified and validated by using four survey stages of expert opinions with more than 200 respondents of practioners, academicians, experts in the field of road pavements from 28 provinces in Indonesia. The first survey identified current performance of the application of quality standards and structural damages of road pavements. The second survey identified and verified 14 factors, 131 variables including indicators and parameters of quality standards application. The third survey verified cluster of 131 into 50 variables and validated their influence. The fourth survey validated comparative level of importance among 50 variables towards factors of quality standards application. Finding of the identification show that structural damages of road pavement both national and provincial mostly occur in the beginning of its life services. It is due to inappropriate procedure of construction and quality control towards quality standards application. Types of those structural damages are: (i) displacement and corrugation of surface pavement newly constructed, and (ii) cracking and pothole of surface pavement as a results of improvement and maintenance. Monitoring and evaluation of road pavement quality standards application was therefore modelled into hierarchy which is comprehensive based on systemic approach, consisting of 5 (five) subsystems, 14 factors and 50 variables. Proportion of subsystems toward the quality standards application sytems is that (i) Input 32,5% consisting of : human resources of quality control (15,1%), utilisation of testing instruments (7,9%), utilisation of testing materials (6,4%), dan peformance of standard form (3,1%); (ii) Process 19,7% consisting of: socialisation (8,0%), implementation (5,9%), data management (3,1%), and distribution (2,8%); (iii) Output 19,1% consisting of: achievement level of quality (11,2%) and achievement level of socialisation (7,9%); (iv) Outcome 15,0% consisting of: level of structural strength (9,0%) and level functional strenght (6,0%); Impact 13,7% consisting of: level of stable road (7,8%) and comfortable road (5,9%) respectively. Findings of this research show that 5 factors are significantly dominant to lead to application of quality standards. Those factors are (1) human resource, (2) quality standard socialisation, (3) quality achievement, (4) structural strength and stable road. In this research, the result of modelling was transformed into a software based on Delphy programming called MESTAM_JALAN (Monitoring dan Evaluasi Pemberlakuan STAndar Mutu JALAN). This software is used to determine influential trend of variables towards factors of quality standards applications and to suggest solutions and recommendations for improving performance of the quality standards application further. The findings of the research can be practically utilised to describe any results of road pavement performance evaluation for any road sections in a certain region as part of fundamental basis for improving road pavement management x sytems of national and provincial road networks in Indonesia. Practically, the result of the research can be used to show findings of quality evaluation of road pavement between road sections of any region as a basis of further improvement of national and provincial road management in Indonesia.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Doctor Program in Civil Engineering
ID Code:16274
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:08 Jul 2010 13:34
Last Modified:08 Jul 2010 13:34

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