KAJIAN DAN ANALISIS PELUANG PENERAPAN PRODUKSI BERSIH PADA USAHA KECIL BATIK CAP (Studi kasus pada tiga usaha industri kecil batik cap di Pekalongan)

Nurdalia, Ida (2006) KAJIAN DAN ANALISIS PELUANG PENERAPAN PRODUKSI BERSIH PADA USAHA KECIL BATIK CAP (Studi kasus pada tiga usaha industri kecil batik cap di Pekalongan). Masters thesis, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Kajian dan analisis peluang penerapan produksi bersih pada usaha kecil batik cap dilaksanakan dengan melakukan pengamatan proses produksi tiga perusahaan di Pekalongan, yakni Clarasita, Fayza dan Ismi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kemungkinan adanya inefisiensi pada setiap tahapan produksi; menganalisis kemungkinan penerapan produksi bersih pada setiap tahapan proses pembuatan batik; dan mengevaluasi keuntungannya secara ekonomi serta risikonya ke lingkungan. Lingkup penelitian meliputi pengamatan, implementasi, pembimbingan dan evaluasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pengamatan produksi, pencatatan produksi, pencatatan penggunaan air, energi (listrik, minyak tanah, kayu bakar), bahan baku dan bahan penolong, evaluasi produksi, perencanaan, dan alternatif produksi. Proses produksi pembuatan batik cap terdiri dari pemotongan kain mori, pengecapan, colet, batik/nembok, celup dan lorod. Bahan baku dan penolong yang digunakan berupa mori, malam, zat warna dan bahan kimia lainnya. Selain bahan baku dan penolong, untuk proses produksi diperlukan energi dan air. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, kebutuhan bahan per satu meter kain batik pada masing-masing perusahaan dan dibandingkan dengan range efisiensi data benchmark (bm) adalah sebagai berikut. Kebutuhan malam Clarasita 152 gram, sedangkan Fayza dan Ismi masing-masing 191 gram dan 242 gram (bm 100-150 gram). Kebutuhan zat warna Clarasita 5,02 gram, Fayza 13,64 gram dan Ismi 5,76 gram (bm 0,5-6 gram per warna). Kebutuhan listrik Clarasita 2 wH, Fayza 4 wH dan Ismi 10 wH (bm 5-15 wH). Kebutuhan minyak tanah Clarasita 20 ml, Fayza 90 ml dan Ismi 50 ml (bm 25-50 ml). Kebutuhan kayu bakar Clarasita 539 gram, Fayza 496 gram dan Ismi 417 gram (bm 100-150 gram). Kebutuhan air Clarasita 5 liter, sedangkan Fayza dan Ismi sama sebesar 8 liter (bm 25-50 liter). Inefisensi terjadi pada setiap tahap proses produksi. Inefisiensi penggunaan malam relatif sama pada masing-masing perusahaan, yakni sekitar 60%. Inefisiensi penggunaan zat warna di Perusahaan Clarasita 24,52%,- per tahun, di Perusahaan Fayza 0,07% per tahun dan di Perusahaan Ismi 54,58% per tahun. Inefisiensi penggunaan air Clarasita diperkirakan 30% per tahun, Fayza 15% per tahun dan Ismi 10% per tahun. Dengan demikian disarankan ketiga perusahaan tersebut mengutamakan penanganan efisiensi terhadap penggunaan malam, zat warna dan penggunaan air. NPO (Non Product Output) yang dihasilkan berupa limbah padat, limbah cair dan gas. Penerapan produksi bersih perlu dilakukan untuk memperkecil dampak pencemaran lingkungan, dengan cara mereduksi limbah dari sumbernya melalui pengaturan penggunaan energi, air, bahan baku dan bahan tambahan. Alternatip penanganan atau perbaikan sebagai implementasi produksi bersih dapat dilakukan dengan pemanfaatan sisa kain mori, membuat bak perangkap malam, memasang lantai keramik, memasang peralatan pengontrol penggunaan air (flowmeter), mengganti peralatan produksi yang sudah tidak berfungsi dengan baik dan menjaga kebersihan. Manfaat secara ekonomi penerapan produksi bersih dapat mengurangi biaya produksi, sedangkan manfaat ke lingkungan mengurangi beban pencemaran. The Study and Prospect Analysis of Cleaner Production Implementation in “Batik Cap” Small Industries are conducted by scrutinizing the production process of three batik companies: Clarasita, Fayza and Ismi, in Pekalongan. The aims of this study are to identify of inefficiencies in each phase of production process; to analyze the possibility of cleaner production implementation in each phase of batik production process; and to evaluate the economic benefits and environmental risks of batik industries. The study covers observation, implementation, guidance and evaluation. The research observes the production process; production recordings and reports; usage of water, energy (electricity, kerosene, and fire woods), as well as direct and indirect materials; production evaluations, plannings, and production alternatives. There are several phases in the production process of “batik cap”, whereas: cutting, printing, writing process (colet), waxing, dyeing and releasing wax. The direct and indirect materials used consist of textile (mori), wax, dyestuff (coloring agents) and any other chemical materials. Production process are needs energy and water as well. The study found that the material requirement of each meter of “batik cap” in three companies observed and compared to the benchmark (bm) data as follow. Wax usage in Clarasita, Fayza and Ismi respectively is 152 gram, 191 gram and 242 gram (bm 100-150 gram). In addition, the consumption of dyestuff in each company respectively is Clarasita 5,02 gram, Fayza 13,64 gram and Ismi 5,76 gram (bm 0,5-6 gram per color). The usage of electricity in Clarasita is 2 wH, Fayza is 4 wH and Ismi is 10 wH (bm 5-15 wH). Moreover, the kerosene consumed in Clarasita, Fayza and Ismi respectively is 20 ml, 90 ml and 50 ml (bm 25-50 ml), while the usage of fire woods in three companies respectively is 539 gram for Clarasita, 496 gram for Fayza, and 417 gram for Ismi (bm 100-150 gram). At last, the water consumption in Clarasita is 5 liter, while in Fayza and Ismi is the same amount of 8 liter (bm 25-50 liter). Meanwhile, material-usage inefficiency was detected in each phase of production process of the three companies observed. The significant inefficiency is related to the usage of wax, dyestuff and water. The portion of wax and dyestuff cost dominate the total production cost of the three companies studied. Therefore, it is suggested that the three companies prioritize an enhancement programs in using wax, dyestuff, and water. In Clarasita, Fayza and Ismi, it was found that there has been unreusable wax of 60%. Clarasita suffered dyestuff losses of 24,52% a year; Fayza experienced in excess of dyestuff 0,07% a year; while Ismi experienced some excess of dyestuff for about 54,58% a year. Water inefficiency in Clarasita, Fayza and in Ismi approximately 80% a year. The production outputs include batik as a wanted product and waste as an unwanted product (NPO). The implementation of cleaner production is needed to reduce the negative impacts of the pollution created, by managing the usage of energy, water, direct, and indirect materials to reduce the waste directly from its source. The cleaner production implementation as an alternative of production process enhancement is done by utilising mori waste as an additional product material, building wax reservoir, using tiles, placing flowmeter, replacing old tools which are inefficient, and keeping cleanliness. The economic benefits of cleaner production implementation is believed to be able to reduce production cost and the level of pollution created. Key words: Batik cap, efficiency, prospect analisys, NPO, cleaner production.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:15638
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:05 Jul 2010 15:06
Last Modified:05 Jul 2010 15:06

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