MODEL KOMUNIKASI PEMBANGUNAN DALAM PENYEDIAAN PRASARANA PERDESAAN DI KAWASAN PESISIR UTARA JAWA TENGAH (Studi Kasus Desa Morodemak dan Purwosari Kabupaten Demak)

MAHMUD, AMIR (2007) MODEL KOMUNIKASI PEMBANGUNAN DALAM PENYEDIAAN PRASARANA PERDESAAN DI KAWASAN PESISIR UTARA JAWA TENGAH (Studi Kasus Desa Morodemak dan Purwosari Kabupaten Demak). Masters thesis, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Providing of infrastructure is one of the most important solutions in developing and expanding rural region. In fact, the government ability in providing rural infrastructure is limited, while society participation not always emerges by itself so that need motivated continuously through an activity of development communication. In North Coastal area of Central Java there is a phenomenon, the attention of society to religious facilities-infrastructures exceed countryside’s non-religious infrastructures, so that considered necessary to adopt communication model of providing religious facilities-infrastructure (control model) as development base of communication model of providing non-religious facilities-infrastructure (experiment model). This research expected can give to contribute ideas to the concept of the development of providing countryside infrastructure communication model according to the characteristic of the society in North Coastal area of Central Java, so that can give alternative resolving to participation problems which very related to development communications activity. Considering widely scope of this research, hence it was conducted with case study through quantitative approach based on posivistic consideration, and also used research development and survey methods, with research instrument, questionnaire. The stakeholders of the development in rural area are being as the research sample, where its sample taken by fusing all purposive technique, proportional and disproportionate stratified random sampling. According to theory, it compiled hypothetic model with main component of communications forum and communications technique. Components of communications forum reflect steps of communications activity from planning, organizing, powering till supervising development, also load principles of forum such as citizen participation, openness of forum, routines activities and cohesively forum. While components of communications technique are include two-steps, persuasive, dialogic and deliberative communication techniques. The result shows that hypothetic model can be applied on both models, and also the control model proved significantly different with the experiment model. Following to the result of Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA), seems that stakeholders’ access is low in each step activity of communications forum, marked by slightly citizen participation level, openness forum, routine activities dan cohesively forum. As well as the level applying of two-steps, persuasive, dialogic and deliberative communication techniques which in fact as according to condition of countryside also in low level, so that those components still become the main priority of model development. So that it recommended: 1) need applying communications pattern that giving opportunity for public participation; 2) local forum particularly religious institution can be made as communications media and spreading information of rural infrastructure due to proven more flexible to participation, openness, routine and cohesively principles; 3) communications shall pay attention the role of informal figure as mediator and communicator at local level, usage of message which clarifying benefits, effect, and supporting theory, placing forward parley principle and feedback; 4) Taking over government projects in rural scale to the community. Penyediaan prasarana salah satu solusi terpenting dalam pembangunan dan pengembangan wilayah perdesaan. Pada kenyataannya kemampuan pemerintah dalam menyediakan prasarana perdesaan terbatas, sedang partisipasi masyarakat tidak selalu muncul dengan sendirinya sehingga perlu terus-menerus didorong melalui suatu kegiatan komunikasi pembangunan. Di kawasan Pesisir Utara Jawa Tengah terdapat suatu fenomena, perhatian masyarakat terhadap sarana-prasarana keagamaan melebihi prasarana perdesaan non-keagamaan, sehingga dipandang perlu mengadopsi model komunikasi penyediaan sarana prasarana keagamaan (model kontrol) sebagai basis pengembangan model komunikasi penyediaan prasarana perdesaan non keaagamaan (model eksperimen) Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberi sumbang pemikiran tentang konsep pengembangan model komunikasi penyediaan prasarana perdesaan yang sesuai dengan karakteristik masyarakat Pesisir Utara Jawa Tengah, sehingga dapat memberi alternatif pemecahan bagi persoalan partisipasi yang sangat terkait dengan kegiatan komunikasi pembangunan. Mengingat luasnya wilayah penelitian, maka penelitian dilakukan dengan studi kasus melalui pendekatan kuantitatif berdasar pemikiran posivistik, serta menggunakan metode penelitian pengembangan dan survey, dengan instrumen penelitian berupa kuesioner. Stakeholders pembangunan di tingkat desa dijadikan sebagai sampel penelitian, di mana pengambilannya memadukan teknik purposive, proportional dan disproportionate stratified random sampling. Sesuai kajian teori disusun model hipotetik dengan komponen utama forum komunikasi dan teknik komunikasi. Komponen forum komunikasi mencerminkan tahapan kegiatan komunikasi sejak perencanaan, pengorganisasian, penggerakan hingga pengawasan pembangunan, juga memuat prinsip-prinsip forum berupa keikutsertaan warga, keterbukaan forum, rutinitas kegiatan dan kohesivitas forum. Sedang komponen teknik komunikasi meliputi teknik komunikasi dua tahap, persuasif, dialogis dan deliberatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa model hipotetik dapat diterapkan pada kedua model, serta model kontrol terbukti berbeda secara signifikan dengan model eksperimen, sehingga dapat diadopsi sebagai pengembangan model eksperimen. Sesuai hasil analisis IPA (Importance-Performance Analysis), terlihat bahwa akses stakeholders dalam setiap tahapan kegiatan forum komunikasi rendah, ditandai dengan rendahnya tingkat keikutsertaan warga, keterbukaan forum, rutinitas kegiatan dan kohesivitas forum. Begitu pula tingkat penerapan teknik komunikasi dua tahap, persuasif, dialogis dan deliberatif yang sebenarnya sesuai dengan kondisi perdesaan juga rendah, sehingga komponenkomponen tersebut masih menjadi prioritas utama pengembangan model Sehingga direkomendasikan: 1) perlu penerapan pola komunikasi yang memberi peluang keikutsertaan publik; 2) forum lokal terutama lembaga keagamaan dapat dijadikan sebagai media komunikasi dan penyebaran informasi prasarana perdesaan karena terbukti lebih fleksibel terhadap prinsip keikutsertaan, keterbukaan, rutinitas dan kohesivitas; 3) kegiatan komunikasi hendaknya memperhatikan peran tokoh informal sebagai mediator dan komunikator di tingkat lokal, penggunaan pesan yang memperjelas manfaat, akibat, dan dalil penguat, mengedepankan feedback dan prinsip permusyawaratan; 4) penyerahan proyek-proyek pemerintah skala desa kepada masyarakat.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Urban and Regional Planning
ID Code:15352
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:29 Jun 2010 20:49
Last Modified:29 Jun 2010 20:49

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