Estimating The Annual Cost of Smoking-Related Diseases in Indonesia

Sutrisna, Bambang and Surtidewi, Lujna and Jusuf, Anwar and Hudoyo, Ahmad and Kusmana, Dede and Setianto, Budhi and Purwaningsih, Endang (2009) Estimating The Annual Cost of Smoking-Related Diseases in Indonesia. Media Medika Indonesiana, 43 (5). pp. 247-253. ISSN 0126-1762


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Background: Smoking plays a role in the development of chronic diseases and causes substantial negative economic consequences. This study was carried out to estimate the annual cost of smoking-related cardio-cerebrovascular and pulmonary diseases in the population by taking into account the direct costs associated with such co-morbid conditions in Indonesia. Methods: Meta-analysis using the Mix-Programme Software of the data of patients from university medical centers who were active smokers for more than a year and more than 20-pack years or passive smokers for more than a year and diagnosed with Coronary Heart Disease, Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, COPD, Chronic bronchitis, or Lung Cancer had been conducted. Annual direct cost was taken into account using the Decision Analysis Tree Age Pro (=DATA) software; cost data related to health care expenditure were derived from secondary data sources in Jakarta. In addition, Population Attributable Risk (PAR) for each comorbid conditions was calculated based on published epidemiological data from local and international journals. Results: One-hundred and eighty-seven patients (96% male) satisfying the inclusion criteria, were analyzed, of whom confirmed diagnosis of Stroke was amongst 29% of the patients, CHD 16%, Myocardial Infarction 16%, Lung Cancer 15%, COPD 17%, and Chronic Bronchitis 7%. Mean direct annual cost was highest for Lung Cancer (Rp 51.6 million) followed by Myocardial infarction (Rp 38.5 million) and CHD (Rp 37.8 million); PAR for various co-morbid conditions (based on variations in relative risk and smoking prevalence estimates) were: Stroke ~16%-26%, CHD ~17%-27%, MCI ~ 22%-33%, Lung Cancer ~ 17%-26%, COPD ~ 13%-21%, Chronic Bronchitis ~ 42%-59%. Conclusions: Annual cost of smoking-related diseases in Indonesia has been estimated. The highest cost is for Lung Cancer. The highest PAR is for Chronic Bronchitis.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Smoking-related diseases, Annual cost, Indonesia.
Subjects:R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions:UNDIP Journal > Media Medika Indonesia
Faculty of Medicine > Department of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine > Department of Medicine
ID Code:15244
Deposited By:Mr. Kedokteran Admin
Deposited On:25 Jun 2010 10:13
Last Modified:05 Aug 2010 23:33

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