KEBIJAKAN KRIMINAL DALAM PENANGGULANGAN KERUSUHAN POSO

WAHID, ABDUL (2005) KEBIJAKAN KRIMINAL DALAM PENANGGULANGAN KERUSUHAN POSO. Masters thesis, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

One of new dimension of criminal phenomenon that had not been formulated in national crime law is collective violence or famous as "riot" or "mass raging violently". Mass raging crime has not been apply yet to fight for the riot crime because it yet not been regulated in national criminal laws in general and in Indonesian Criminal Code particularly, I does not mean that the criminal code cannot be used at all. There are some regulations that can be applied for dealing the riot crime symptom. Poso Regency is one of areas that often experienced the riot. On three years only, this region experienced five times of riots that happened over and over again which caused many victims. Through depth participation research can be identified as follow the dead victims reach 2000 people. The victim of burned down buildings, such as 15.686 houses, 400 stores, 73 Mosques / small mosques, 87 churches, 85 schools, 82 government office buildings, 3 public markets, 34 transportation facilities (cars and motorcycles), 7 hotels, 1 policy dormitory. 320 peoples have been the victims of violation and sexual harassment, and the refugees reach 100.000 people. This study applies "social legal approach". The purpose of this research is to solve the problem of Poso's riot by integrating these efforts of criminal prevention through penal and non-penal measures. Based on the research and analysis results the root problems of the Poso's Riot is difficult to handle, because it consists of "Local Conflict" such as political, laws, religion, economical and corruption problems, "National Changes" (such as political elite, security official intervention, Jatinangor Conference, Great Toraja Province / Country establishment), "International interest" (to separate the East of Indonesian Region). "The riot crime" has not been regulated specifically in Criminal Code of Indonesia, proves that it has not effectively been used in dealing the collective violence because the riot's subject has not given an individually based dealing but collectively. The limitation of criminal code to fight for the riot crimes in Poso places penal law enforcement viewed as criminogen factor. Based some consolidation and reconciliation steps have been conducted the riot's problems, i.e. for Local Importance, Regional Importance, National Importance and for nation wholeness (Malino Declaration), however such solution, in its implementation has not given secure feeling and the civil trust. To solve this problem, the riot needs to be prevented by giving formulation policy (steps to serve) criminalization as the formation of criminal general prevention. The importance of the formulation policy steps is to place the riot crime as a (specific offence) that should be adopted on criminalization as the general crime prevention in Criminal Code Concept (2004). Salah satu fenomena kejahatan berdimensi barn yang tidak dikenal dalam hukum pidana nasional adalah "kekerasan yang melibatkan massa"(collective violence) atau lebih dikenal dengan istilah "Kerusuhan" atau "Amuk Massa". Kejahatan amuk massa belum dapat diterapkan dalam memberantas tindak pidana kerusuhan karena belum diatur dalam hukum pidana nasional, Walaupun belum diatur dalam KUHP, bukan berarti sama sekali tidak dapat digunakan, ada beberapa ketentuan yang dapat diterapkan dalam menghadapi gejala kejahatan kerusuhan. Kabupaten Poso merupakan salah satu wilayah yang sering dilanda kerusuhan karena dalam waktu tiga tahun saja sudah lima kali kerusuhan terjadi susul menyusul yang menimbulkan korban luar biasa. Melalui suatu penelitian partisipasi mendalam (depth participation research method) diidentifikasi korban meninggal mencapai 2000 orang, pembakaran: Rumah Tempat Tinggal 15.686 buah, Rumah tempat usaha 400 buah, Masjid/Musyallah 73 buah, Gereja 87 buah, Sekolah 85 buah, Kantor Pemerintah 82 buah, Pasar 3 buah, Sarana Transportasi (Mobil dan Motor) 34 buah, Hotel 7 buah, Asrama Polres 1 buah, Pemerkosaan dan Pelecehan Seksual 320 orang, pengungsi mencapai 100.000 orang. Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan `yuridis-empiris/sosiologis". Dipilihnya pendekatan ini karena tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah "Kebijakan Kriminal" yaitu perpaduan (integralitas) antara upaya penanggulangan kejahatan dengan sarana penal dan non-penal dalam menghadapi kerusuhan Poso. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dan analisis, ditemukan akar masalah sehingga kerusuhan Poso sulit ditangani, yaitu: meliputi: "Konflik Lokal" (Politik, Hukum, Agama, Ekonomi dan Korupsi), "Rekayasa Nasional" (Elite politik, Keterlibatan Aparat Keamanan, Pertemuan Jatinangor, Mendirikan Negara/Provinsi Torajaraya), "Kepentingan Internasional" (Memisahkan Wilayah Indonesia Timur). Belum diaturnya secara spesifik "kejahatan kerusuhan" dalam KUHP, membuktikan hukum pidana tidak efektif dipergunakan dalam menghadapi kekerasan massa (Collective Violence) karena subjek kerusuhan tidak memberi penilaian individual melainkan kolektif. Keterbatasan hukum pidana dalam memberantas kejahatan kerusuhan di Poso menempatkan kebijakan penegakan hukum pidana (penal law enforcement) dipandang sebagai faktor kriminogen. Beberapa langkah Konsolidasi dan Rekonsiliasi telah ditempuh dalam mengatasi masalah kerusuhan, yaitu: untuk Kepentingan Lokal, Keperluan Regional, Kebutuhan Nasional dan demi Keutuhan Negara (Deklarasi Malino), namun solusi tersebut dalam implementasinya belum memberikan rasa aman dan kepercayaan masyarakat. Untuk mengatasi masalah kerusuhan perlu segera ditempuh langkah kebijakan formulasi dengan cara melakukan kriminalisasi sebagai wujud pencegahan kejahatan secara umum (genenal prevensi). Pentingnya ditempuh langkah kebijakan formulasi adalah dalam rangka menempatkan tindak pidana kerusuhan sebagai delik tersendiri dan diadopsi dalam Konsep Rancangan KUHP (Konsep 2004).

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Law
ID Code:14601
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:16 Jun 2010 16:18
Last Modified:16 Jun 2010 16:18

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