PELAKSANAAN KLAUSULA-KLAUSULA ARBITRASE DALAM PERJANJIAN BISNIS

INDRIYANI, RISMA (2003) PELAKSANAAN KLAUSULA-KLAUSULA ARBITRASE DALAM PERJANJIAN BISNIS. Masters thesis, program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

The scope of transnational business contracts is very wide and having various types in accordance with the purposes and objectives of each contract. Transnational business contract always contain foreign elements when related to the law of our country, and incorporated therein is the choice of law and choice of-forum. Choice of law refers to a certain legal system which serves as the law to regulate the contract, whereas the choice of forum is a selection / appointment of legal institution or arbitration body which shall be chosen by the parties in the settlement of dispute arising out of the contract. In 17th — 18th centuries "Lex Mercatoria" began to be introduced into the national laws of the countries of the world. The legal sources of Lex Mercatoria among others are : Public International Law, Uniform Laws, the General Principle of Law, the Rules of International Organizations, Custom and Usages, Standard Form Contracts, and Reporting of Arbitration Award. Most of the business persons prefer to settle their disputes through arbitration. Indonesia, under Law No. 30 of 1999, regulates the settlement of business dispute through arbitration forum. In regard of the Legal Basis of Foreign Arbitration, Indonesian government has recognized various International conventions in arbitration matters i.e. in Law No. 5 of 1968 (State Gazette 1968 No. 32) concerning Ratification of Convention for Settlement of Dispute Between the State and Foreign Citizen regarding the Capital Investment, in Presidential Decree No. 34 of 1981 concerning the ratification of New York Convention of 1958, as signatory in the Resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations No. 31/98 dated December 15, 1976 regarding UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law), and in the Supreme Court Regulation No. 1 of 1990 concerning the procedure for executing foreign arbitration. The right and obligation of the business persons as parties in an agreement are thoroughly regulated in the business contract, therefore the achievement and contra achievement of the respective parties shall be apparent. However, the party may enter into additional agreement (assessor) over the possibility of dispute and for such purpose the respective parties should be agreed to arbitration forum by incorporating the arbitration clause in the provisions of the agreement. The arbitration clause in business contract shall serve as the Supplement to the Main Agreement and as the Arbitration Basis which can be used as the ground of all authorities given to the arbitrators in resolving the dispute. If the clause is not drawn up clearly and thoroughly, it may seems as "nonsense clause" or clause with ambiguity. Formulating arbitration clause comprehensively will avoid various obstacles in the implementation of arbitration. A complete arbitration clause should consist of : (1) Commitment of the parties performing the arbitration; (2) Scope of the arbitration; (3) Form of the arbitration chosen; (4) Applicable procedural regulation; (5) Place and official language; (6) Prevailing substantive choice of law; and (7) Stabilization and immunity clauses. Ruang lingkup kontrak-kontrak bisnis transnasional sangat luas, dan beraneka macam sesuai dengan objek dan tujuannya masing-masing. Dalam kontrak bisnis transnasional selalu terdapat unsur-unsur asing (foreign element) dipertautkan dengan hukum negara kita, serta memuat klauSula pilihan hukum (choice of law dan choice of forum). Choice of law menunjuk suatu sistem hukum tertentu sebagai hukum yang mengatur kontrak itu, sedangkan choice of forum berupa pemilihan / penunjukan lembaga peradilan mana atau lembaga arbitrase mana yang dipilih para pihak untuk menyelesaikan sengketa yang mungkin timbul dari kontrak itu. Pada abad 17-18 "Lex Mercatoria" mulai diresepsi kedalam berbagai hukum nasional dari negara-negara di dunia. Sumber hukum Lex Mercatoria adalah : Public International Law, Uniform Laws, The General Principle of Law, The Rules of International Organizations, Custom and Usages, Standard Form Contracts, dan Reporting of Arbitrase Award. Sebahagian besar pengusaha lebih suka menyelesaikan sengketa yang timbul diantara mereka melalui arbitrase. Indonesia telah mengatur penyelesaian sengketa bisnis melalui forum arbitrase dengan Undang-undang No. 30 Tahun 1999. Mengenai Landasan Hukum Arbitrase Asing, pemerintah Indonesia telah melakukan pengakuan atas berbagai konvensi Internasional dibidang arbitrase yaitu Undang-undang No. 5 Tahun 1968 (LN Tahun 1968 No. 32) tentang Pengesahan Konvensi Penyelesaian Perselisihan Antarnegara dan warga Negara Asing mengenai PenanamanModal; Keppres No. 34 Tahun 1981 tentang pengesahan Konvensi New York 1958; dan penandatanganan Resolusi Sidang Umum PBB No. 31/98 tanggal 15 Desember 1976 tentang UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law), serta Peraturan Mahkamah Agung No. 1 Tahun 1990 tentang tata cara pelaksanaan eksekusi putusan arbitrase asing. Kegiatan bisnis yang dilakukan oleh pelaku usaha akan diatur dalam perjanjian (kontrak), sehingga prestasi dan kontra prestasi masing-masing pihak menjadi jelas. Selain itu para pihak dapat mengadakan perjanjian tambahan (assesor) terhadap kemungkinan timbulnya sengketa (dispute) dan masing-masing pihak bersepakat untuk menyelesaikannya melalui forum arbitrase dengan membuat klausula arbitrase dalam klausula perjanjian bagi para pihak yang melaksanakan kegiatan bisnis. Peranan klausula arbitrase dalam kontrak bisnis adalah sebagai Pelengkap Perjanjian Pokok dan sebagai Basis Arbitrase yang menjadi dasar segala wewenang para arbitrer untuk memutuskan persoalan sengketa yang bersangkutan. Jika klausula tidak disusun secara cermat dan jeias-, maka - akan nampak sebagai "nonsense clause" atau bersifat mendua (ambiguity). Perumusan klausula arbitrase yang konprehensif akan menghindari berbagai hambatan dalam pelaksanaan arbitrase. Klausula arbitrase yang lengkap mencakup (1) Komitmen para pihak untuk melaksanakan arbitrase; (2) Ruang lingkup arbitrase; (3) Bentuk arbitrase yang dipilih; (4) Aturan prosedural yang berlaku; (5) Tempat dan bahasa yang digunakan; (6) Pilihan hukum substantif yang berlaku; dan (7) Klausula-klausula stabilitasi dan kekebalan (immunitas).

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Law
ID Code:13510
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:07 Jun 2010 08:57
Last Modified:07 Jun 2010 08:57

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