EVALUASI MORFOLOGI, ANATOMI, FISIOLOGI DAN SITOLOGI TANAMAN RUMPUT PAKAN YANG MENDAPAT PERLAKUAN KOLKISIN

SUHARNI, SRI (2005) EVALUASI MORFOLOGI, ANATOMI, FISIOLOGI DAN SITOLOGI TANAMAN RUMPUT PAKAN YANG MENDAPAT PERLAKUAN KOLKISIN. Masters thesis, Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Forage was the main component of feed ruminant livestock. In Indonesia, the availability of superior forage is still scarce because the grass propagation was usually followed the vegetatively propagation and rarely through generatively propagation. The continuously vegetative propagation would cause genetic structure and alel homogeneus so that it would degrade the grass quality. Polyploidization was one of the way to improve the forage grass quality. The research was aimed to obtain the seedly of grass polyploid with colchicine treatment. The research was carry out in Forage Crop Laboratory, Department of Animal Feed Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Agricultur and Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicines, Diponegoro University, from January to October 2003. It used seven kinds of grass, they are R1=Pennisetum purpureum,R2= Pennisetum purpupoides, R3= Setaria ,splendida, R4= Selaria sphacelata, R5= Panicum muticum, R6= Brachiaria brizantha, R7= Brachiaria decumbens. The research design was the Completely Randomized Design , with 2 x 7 factorial experiment and 4 replicated. The first factor is grass (R) and the second factor is concentration colchicine (K) so that there were 56 experiment units. The Colchicine were given hi the mauling and afternoon for two days by concentration of the colchicine 0,6% on the lateral bud. The observated parameter were the morphology on the plant height, the amount of newly seed and leaves, the anatomy on the amount of choroplast, the physiology on the chlorophyll rate, the leaf colour, nitrate reductase activity, dry matter percentage, dry matter production and the cytology on the amount of chromosome. The finding data were analysed by F test continued with the Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT), Simple Effec using F test and the level indexs of the cumulative resulted defference. The result of this research indicate the 0,6% colchicine dripping on the R1,R2,R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 could produce a better polyploid grass in the morphology of the plant height increase from 11,16% to 27,73%, the amount of newly seed increase up to 61,90% and the amount leaves increase 36,02%, the anatomy on the amount of choroplas increase from 11,00% to 44,73%, the physiology on the chorophyll rate increase from 22,09% to 49,17%, the leaf colour increase from 11,52 to 36,99%, the nitrate reductase activity increase from 62,81 to 112,52%, the dry matter percentage increase from 1,69% to 13,81%, and dry matter production increase from 2,42% to 22,98% except the Pennisetum purpurem decrease up to — 2,99% than the diploid one The conclusion of this research was 0,6% colchicine dripping on the RI, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 could produce a better polyploid grass in the morphology, anatomy, physiology and cytology than the diploid one. R7 and R5 was the best responsive to colchicine treatment. Hijauan merupakan komponen utama pakan ternak ruininansia. Di Indonesia penyediaan bibit unggul tanaman rumput masih sangat terbatas, karena perkembangbiakan rumput masih dilakukan secara vegetatif dan jarang melalui generatif. Perkembangbiakan secara vegetatif yang dilakukan secara terus menerus dapat menyebabkan penyempitan genetik dan kehomogenan alel, sehingga akan menurunkan kualitas. Poliploidisasi merupakan salah sate cara untuk memperbaiki kualitas tanaman rumput. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatIcan bibit rumput poliploid dengan perlakuan kolkisin. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari — Oktober 2003 di Laboratorium Ilmu Tanaman Makanan Temak, jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan. Temak Fakultas Petemakan, Laboratorium Bioteknologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro. Materi yang digunakan adalah tujuh jenis rumput yaitu: R1= Pennisetum purpureun2, R2 = Pennisetum purpupoides, R3 = Setaria splendida, R4= Setaria sphacelata, R5= Panicum muticum, R6= Brachiaria brizantha, R7 = Brachiaria decun2bens. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) faktorial 7 x 2 dengan 4 ulangan.• Faktor pertama adalah rumput (R), faktor kedua adalah dosis kolkisin (K), sehingga ada 56 unit percobaan. Pemberian kolkisin pagi dan sore selama dua had dengan cara meneteskan kolkisin 0,6 % pada tunas lateral Parameter yang diamati meliputi: morfologi (tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan dan jumlah daun), anatomi (jumlah kloroplas), fisiologi (kadar klorofil, wama daun, keaktivan nitrat reduktase, persentase bahan kering dan produksi bahan kering) dan sitologi (jumlah kromosom). Data yang diperoleh dianalisis ragam (uji F) dilanjutkan uji Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT), Uji F Pengaruh Sederhana dan Indeks Derajat Perubahan Hasil Kumulatif (IDPHK). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian kolkisin 0,6% pada RI, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 dan R7 dapat menghasilkan tanaman rumput poliploid yang lebih baik dalam hal morfologi (tinggi tanaman meningkat dari 11,16 — 27,73%, jumlah anakan meningkat 25,00 - 61,90% dan jumlah daun 10,09 - 36,02%). anatomi (jumlah kloroplas meningkat dari 11,00 — 44,73%), fisiologi (kandungan klorofil meningkat dari 22,09 — 49,17%, wama daun meningkat dari 11,52 — 36,99%, keaktivan nitrat reduktase meningkat dad 62,81 — 112,52%, persentase bahan kering meningkat dari 1,69 — 13,81% dan produksi bahan kering meningkat dari 2,42 — 22,98% kecuali Pennisetum purpupoides mengalami penurunan — 2,99% daripada tanaman rumput diploidnya. Kesimpulan basil penelitian adalah pemberian kolkisin 0,6% pada R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 dan R7 dapat menghasilkan tanaman rumput poliploid yang lebih tinggi dalam morfologi, anatomi, fisiologi dan sitologi daripada tanaman diploidnya. R7 dan R5 paling responsif terhadap pemberian kolkisin.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Agribusiness
ID Code:12975
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 5
Deposited On:02 Jun 2010 11:51
Last Modified:02 Jun 2010 11:51

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