Kajian Substitusi Tepung Ikan Kembung(Rastrelliger), Rebon(Acetes sp), Rajungan(Portunus pelagicus) Dalam Berbagai Konsentrasi Terhadap Mutu Fisika-Kimiawi dan Organoleptik Pada Mie Instan (The Study of Substitution of Fish (Rastrelliger Sp), Small Shrimp, Swimming Crab(Portunus pelagicus) Meal in Various Concentration to Physicochemical Quality and Organoleptic in the Instant Noodles)

HARYATI , SRI (2005) Kajian Substitusi Tepung Ikan Kembung(Rastrelliger), Rebon(Acetes sp), Rajungan(Portunus pelagicus) Dalam Berbagai Konsentrasi Terhadap Mutu Fisika-Kimiawi dan Organoleptik Pada Mie Instan (The Study of Substitution of Fish (Rastrelliger Sp), Small Shrimp, Swimming Crab(Portunus pelagicus) Meal in Various Concentration to Physicochemical Quality and Organoleptic in the Instant Noodles). Masters thesis, Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

The processing of fishery is a post-harvest activity that has an important role in agro business and agro industry. The fishery product that contain high nutrition which can be made into fish meal through various processes.. The product can be tired as substitute material in the making of instant noodle that can be used to increase the nutrition of the noodle resulted The objective of this research are to study the effect of various type of fish meals (Rastrelliger sp, small shrimp and swimming crab) and their concentration to the quality of instant noodle .....and also to see and analyze the influence of factors to the product as well as consumer's preference. This research was carried out from May 5 until July 20, 2005. in the laboratory in Food Technological Engineering Department of Semarang University, Laboratory of Inter-University Center of Gajalunada University, Laboratory of Mathematics and Natural Science of Diponegoro University and Biochemical Laboratory Animal Husbandry Faculty of Diponegoro University. Materials used in this research were fish (Rastrelliger Sp) , small shrimp (Acetes sp) and swimming crab(Portunus pelagicus) meal which substitute the tapioca flour. The control treatment is tapioca flour with concebtration of 20% (BO) weight? The experimental design used in this research is factorial experimental design based on group random design that consisted of 2 factors namely: Type of flour made from fishery product as factor A that consisted of Al = Fish (Rastrelliger.Sp)meal, A2=Small shrimp meal, A3= swimming crab meal. Factor B was concentration the consisted of B0=0%, I31=5%,B2=10%,B3=15%, B4=20%).Fish treatment was repeated twice. The data were analyzed with Analyses of Varians and followed by LSD at significant level 5%. Variables observed covers physical properties (tensile strength and brightness); chemical properties (water , ash , protein , lipid and calcium content and also organoleptic ( crispiness, color, flavor, striking aroma and overall preference). The production of fish meal, small shrimp meal and swimming crab meal cover preliminary treatment namely ; shortation of raw material (Rastrelliger sp, small shrimp and swimming crab) including quality evaluation like the presence of fonnalin guts, washing, steamed pressing ( for fish), chopping, drying 2x, milling , and sieving. The result showed that substitutions of fish meal with increase concentration increased the tensile strength , water , ash, protein, fat and calcium content , while at organoleptic test it is highly significant for colour and preference , but not significant for crispiness,taste and aroma.. Optimum composition of the treatment for the Tensile strength ( Al BO = 18,15 %) , Brightness ( A2 BO = 56,25 L *), water content ( A3 B4 = 20% )= 19,77%, Fat content ( A2B4 = 20%) : 19,93 % , Calcium content A3B4 ( 20 % ) : 42,525 %, while organoleptic test in accordance to the overall preference of A3B2 treatment ( 10 % )from the view point of cripiness, color, taste, aroma of the instant noodle . Pengolahan hasil perikanan merupakan kegiatan pasca panen yang memegang peranan penting dalam agrobisnis don agroindustri. Hasil perikanan yang mempunyai nilai gizi cukup tinggi dapat diolah menjadi tepung melalui berbagai proses pengolahan, dan hasil olahannya dapat digunakan sebagai bahan substitusi pembuatan mie instant sehingga dapat meningkatkan nilai gizi mie tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana pengaruh berbagai jenis tepung ikan kembung, tepung rebon, tepung rajungan dan konsentrasinya terhadap mutu mie instant yang dihasilkan, serta mengetahui dan menganalisa pengaruh interaksi kedua faktor tersebut terhadap mie instant yang dihasilkan serta tingkat kesukaan konsumen. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dari tanggal 5 Maret sampci 20 Juli 2005; di Laboratorium Rekayasa Pangan Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian dan Peternakan Universitas Semarang, Laboratorium PAU UGM Yogyakarta, Laboratorium MIPA UNDIP, Semarang, Laboratorium Biokimia Fakultas Petemakan UNDIP Semarang dan masyarakat PICK Semarang Barat. Bahan penelitian yang digunakan adalah tepung ikan kembung, tepung rebon dan tepung rajungan yang disubstitusikan pada tepung terigu dalam pembuatan mie instant sebagai pengganti tepung tapioka. Perlakuan yang diberikan yaitu substitusi tepung tapioka pada tepung terigu sebanyak 20 % sebagai kontrol ( BO). Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah percobaan faktorial dengan dasar rancangan acak kelompok (RAK), terdiri dad dua faktor. Faktor A: Janis tepung hasil perikanan (Al: Tepung ikan kembung, A2: Tepung Rebon, A3: Tepung Rajungan) dan faktor B: konsentrasi tepung (BO: 0%, 131: 5%, B2: 10%, B3: 15%, B4: 20%) , Kombinasi perlakuan diulang dua kali. Data basil percobaaan dilakukan pengujian dengan analisa varians (Anova) dilanjutkan dengan uji BNJ pada taraf nyata 5 %. Parameter yang diamati meliputi sifat fisika (tensil strength dan warna (kecerahan)); Sifat Ximia (kadar air, kadar abu, kadar protein, kadar letnak, kadar kalsium) dan sifat organoleptik (kerenyahan, warna, cita rasa, aroma keamisan, kesukaan overall). Pembuatan tepung ikan kembung, tepung rebon ,dan tepung rajungan meliputi beberapa tahap perlakuan pendahuluan yaitu: sortasi bahan baku (ikan kembung, rebon, rajungan), tennasuk penilaian mutu (termasuk ada tidaknya bahan kandungan formalin, perlakuan penyiangan, pencucian, pengukusan pengepresan (untuk ikan kembung), peiggilingan kasar , pengeringan (2x) , penepungan dan pengayakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa substitusi tepung basil perikanan dengan konsentrasi yang meningkat, akan meningkatkan (berpengaruh nyata) tensil strength, kadar air, kadar abu kadar protein, kadar lemak dan kadar kalsium, sedangkan pada uji organoleptik berpengaruh nyata pada warna dan kesukaan, akan tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap kerenyahan, rasa dan aroma. Adapun komposisi optimum perlakuan untuk: tensil strength A1B0 (18,15%), Kecerahan A2B0 (56,245 L"), Kadar air A3B4 (20% tepung Rajungan): 8,585%; kadar abu A3B4( 20% Tepung rajungan) : 9,4298%, Protein AIB4 ( 20% tepung ikan kembung): 19,77%; Lemak A2B4 (20% Tepung Rebon): 19,93%; Kalsium A3B4 (20% Tepung rajungan):42,525%. Sedangkan uji organoleptik berdasarkan tingkat kesukaan secara keseluruhan perlakuan A3B2: (10% tepung rajungan) baik ditinjau dari kerenyahan, warna, rasa, aroma pada mic instan yang dihasilkan

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:S Agriculture > SH Aquaculture. Fisheries. Angling
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Coastal Resource Management
ID Code:12921
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 5
Deposited On:02 Jun 2010 08:15
Last Modified:02 Jun 2010 08:15

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