PERUBAHAN KEBIJAKAN PENEGAKAN HUKUM DALAM MASA TRANSISI MENUJU DEMOKRASI (Studi Mengenai Penegakan Hukum Terhadap Aksi Unjuk Rasa di Jawa Timur)

BAHRI, SYAIFUL (2002) PERUBAHAN KEBIJAKAN PENEGAKAN HUKUM DALAM MASA TRANSISI MENUJU DEMOKRASI (Studi Mengenai Penegakan Hukum Terhadap Aksi Unjuk Rasa di Jawa Timur). Masters thesis, Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

A Change of social system followed by a change of political system tends to result a change of legal system as well. The change of legal system will cover such essential and structural aspects, and even aspects of socio-culture in the law matters. All aspects have an impact on law enforcement as a result of the change, and practically, it is needed an accurate strategy to manage euphoria of the change. The change of political system from semi authoritarian democracy to the real democratic political system has originated the change of strategy and patterns for the law enforcement; the past developed repressive patterns have been substituted by the patterns of responsive and human approach based on the values of democracy. The findings of the research showed as the following : First, the change of national policy for the law enforcement was absolutely depend on the transfer of political system executed by the ruling regime. The change of national policy, in this sense, was aimed at backing up the ruling political system, including functional and stuctural factors, both input and output factors. The process of formulating the change of national policy for the law enforcement has been originated hand in hand with the change of the law enforcement paradigm which was harmonized with the conducted political system; they were, in turn, going to bear the change of legal system and the law enforcement themselves. Second, the change of political system during the New Order moved forward to the substituted regime had the outcome of the change of the Police institution in handling more demonstrations and protest. Any repressive approaches have been avoided and responsive ones relatively were committed. Besides, a style of the National leadership personified with a figure of the President contributed a sigfnificant influence toward a good machinary of the Indonesian Police, and it actually can not be denied that the Indonesian Police, at present condition, is a really sub-ordinate agent of the President. Having separated the Indonesian Police from the Indonesian Army, it does not mean that the Indonesian Police has a strong power to construct instantly the responsive and human approaches, any military style patterns are often implemented to become demonstrations and striker extinguished the Indonesian Police has not yet behaved as "a civil man". Based on the result of the research, the Indonesian Police also the other legal apparatus, from now on, should be provided kind of readiness to anticipate the social problems in the future time. The repressive patterns or the ways in the military style must not have been developed anymore, and the persuasive and human approaches must be supported and appreciated. On the other hand, the Indonesian Police institution should be reorganized to be an independent institute of the law enforcement, without any interference from both executive and legislative board, and it is surely expected that the Indonesian Police can be able to do more for the people, state and nation, not for the interest of the ruling regime. Perubahan sistem kemasyarakatan yang berlanjut ke pembahan sistem politik kenegaraan membawa serta ke perubahan sistem hukum. Perubahan sistem hukum, yang meliputi aspek substansi, aspek struktural, dan aspek budaya hukum masyarakat, berkonsekuensi terjadinya perubahan dalam penegakannya, baik strategi maupun taktik dalam menghadapi euforia sebagai akibat perubahan itu. Perubahan sistem politik yang semi otoriter-demokratis ke sistem politik yang lebih demokratis mendesakkan terjadinya perubahan pola penegakan hukumnya, dan pola represif ke pola yang lebih responsif sesuai dengan nilai-nilai demokrasi. Temuan dalam penelitian tesis ini menunjukkan: pertama, perubahan kebijakan penegakan hukum sangat ditentukan oleh rejim pemerintahan yang berkuasa. Perubahan kebijakan tersebut dimaksudkan untuk mendukung bekerjanya sistem politik, yang meliputi faktor-faktor fungsional, baik faktor input, maupun faktor output, dan faktor-faktor struktural. Proses-proses terjadinya perubahan sistem politik yang dijalankan, yang kemudian didesakkan untuk terjadinya perubahan sistem hukum dan penegakan hukumnya. Kedua, perubahan sistem politik dad rejim Orde Baru Ice rejim sesudahnya berimplikasi terjadinya perubahan mengenai cam bekerjanya institusi POLRI dalam menangani aksi-aksi unjuk rasa, yaitu dari pola-pola represif ke pola yang lebih responsif, meskipun bersifat relatif, karena dalam kasus-kasus tertentu penanganan yang bersifat represif masih tampak. Selain itu faktor gaya (style) kepemimpinan Nasional yang dipersonifikasi dari figur Presiden sangat berpengaruh terhadap bekerjanya institusi POLRI, karena secara kelembagaan POLRI berada dalam genggaman Presiden. Dipisahkannya institusi POLRI dari subsistem militer (TNI) kembali ke jatidirinya yang "sipil" tidak serta merta mengubah pola tindak militer yang represif ke pola tindak yang lebih responsif sebagimana terlihat dari penggunaan sarana kekerasan dalam membubarkan aksi unjuk rasa Berdasarkan temuan penelitian tersebut, maka POLRI khususnya, dan aparat penegak hukum lainnya, sejak sekarang sudah hams dipersiapkan dalam menghadapi perubahan berbagai bidang kehidupan di masa-masa yang akan datang, sebagai suatu proses alamiah menuju ke suatu kualitas kehidupan yang lebih baik. Cara-cara represif harus segera ditinggalkan, sedangkan upaya-upaya yang bersifat persuasif dalam menangani aksi unjuk rasa dan cara-cara yang lebih bennartabat hams dikedepankan dalam penegakan hukum. Di samping itu, institusi POLRI diarahkan menjadi lembaga penegakan hukum yang independen yang bebas dari campur tangan lembaga eksekutif dan legislatif, sehingga arah kinerjanya lebih dapat berorientasi untuk kepentingan masyarakat, bangsa, dan negara, bukan untuk kepentingan rej im.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Law
ID Code:12769
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 5
Deposited On:01 Jun 2010 14:31
Last Modified:01 Jun 2010 14:31

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