STUDI TENTANG FENOTIP AYAM BURAS BERDASARKAN SIFAT KUANTITATIF DAN KUALITATIF

BUDIPURWANTO, TEDI (2001) STUDI TENTANG FENOTIP AYAM BURAS BERDASARKAN SIFAT KUANTITATIF DAN KUALITATIF. Masters thesis, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

The objective of this research is to recognize domestic fowl fenotipe performance according to their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, on the location of Rural Rearing Multiplication Centre (RRMC) Central Java. The research for domestic fowl performance was held on the location of RRMC Central Java. It takes place in Kendal Regency (Gemuh Subdistrict), Pemalang Regency (Ampelgading Subdistrict), Brebes Regency (Bumiayu Subdistrict) and Sukoharjo Regency (Bendosari Subdistrict). The research began in September 2000 and'inished in December 2000. Domestic fowls used in this study were 1000 hens and 100 cocks by the age of 4 to 6 months, which located in 4 areas of RRMC in Central Java. Limited Random Sample was taken in every location of RRMC. Which were 250 adult domestic fowl hens and 25 domestic fowl cocks (5% from the population) for each location. The observed parameters were the domestic fowl quantitative and qualitative performance. The quantitative characteristics that being observed were body weight, tibia length, shank length and shank twist. The qualitative characteristics were feather color, shank color and comb shape. Data for quantitative characteristics was analyzed by using costat computer program (1997). The qualitative characteristics was calculated based on the fenotipe frequency according to Minkema's (1993). The result shows that domestic fowl hens average body weight in 4 location were 0.99 — 1.22 kg and the domestic fowl cocks average body weight were 1.47 — 1.78 kg. The domestic fowl hens and cocks body weight variation on the research location was very significant. The domestic hens average tibia length were 11.90 — 12.87 cm, and their average shank length in 4 location were 6.69 — 7.43 cm. The result for average shank twist from 4 location were 3.31 — 3.79 cm. The cocks average tibia length from 4 location were 12.44 — 14.12 cm, their average shank length were 6.99 — 8.34 cm, and their average shank twist were 3.54 — 4.24 cm. Domestic fowl or cocks weight can be predicated from their tibia length, shank length and shank twist. The researcher found that feather color pattern solid black (E) type with the frequency of 0.44 and 0.40 was very familiar and could be easily found on domestic fowl (hens and cocks) in Kendal and Sukoharjo Regency. The most familiar feather color pattern in Pemalang regency was solid black (E) type, birchen(ER), brown (eh and white (I) with the equal frequency as follows : 0.15; 0.26;..0.11 and 0.17. In other hand, on the domestic fowl cocks were found feather color pattern solid black (E) type, birchen (ER), brown (eb), white (I) and columbian (Co) on the equal amount as follows : 0.2; 0.24; 0.12; 0.16 and 0.12. In Brebes Regency, hens and cocks feather color pattern was birchen (ER) type with the frequency of 0.74 and 0.68. The result in Sukoharjo Regency shows that the most familiar hen's and cock's color pattern was solid black type with the frequency of 0.35 and 0.32. In Kendal regency, most hens and cocks had black shank color (E) with the frequency of 0.51 and 0.56. In Pemalang Regency, the hens shank color was mostly yellow (Co) with the frequency of 0.47 and the cocks shank color was grey (E1) and yellow (Co) with frequency of 0.36 and 0.32. In Brebes Regency, the reseacher could easily found domestic hens and cocks with grey (Ei) shank color with the frequency of 0.85 and 0.84, their shank color in Sukoharjo Regency was yellow (Co) with the frequency of 0.50 and 0.60. The rose cocks comb share (RRpp) was mostly found on the domestic hens and cocks in Kendal Regency with the frequency of 0.58 and 0.64. In Sukoharjo regency was found the same cocks comb shape with the frequency of 0.6 and 0.56. The single cocks comb shape could be found in Pemalang Regency with the frequency of 0.63 and 0.72, and in Brebes Regency with the frequency off 0.88 and 0.76. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penampilan fenotip ayam buras berdasarkan sifat kuantitatif dan kualitatif di lokasi Rural Rearing Multiplication Centre (RRMC) Jawa Tengah. Penelitian penampilan ayam buras dilaksanakan di lokasi RRMC Jawa Tengah yaitu Kabupaten Brebes (Kecamatan Bumiayu), Kabupaten Pemalang (Kecamatan Ampel gading), Kabupaten Kendal (Kecamatan Gemuh), Kabupaten Sukoharjo (Kecamatan Bendosari). Penelitian berlangsung pada bulan September sampai dengan bulan Desember tahun 2000. Ayam buras yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah ayam buras dewasa umur 4 — 6 bulan sebanyak 1000 ekor betina dan 100 ekor jantan yang berada di 4 lokasi RRMC Jawa Tengah. Di setiap lokasi RRMC diambil sampel secara acak terbatas masing-masing sebanyak 250 ekor ayam bums betina dewasa dan 25 ekor ayam buras jantan (5% dari populasi). Parameter yang diamati meliputi penampilan ayam buras secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Sifat kuantitatif yang diamati meliputi bobot badan, panjang tibia, panjang "shank" dan lingkar "shank". Sifat kualitatif yang diamati yaitu warna bulu, warna "shank" dan bentuk jengger. Data sifat kuantitatif dianalisis dengan menggunakan program paket komputer Costat (1997) Sifat kualitatif dihitung berdasarkan frekuensi fenotip sesuai dengan pendapat Minkema (1993). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata bobot badan ayam buras betina dad 4 lokasi penelitian berkisar antara 0,99 — 1,22 kg. Hasil penelitian bobot badan ayam buras jantan menunjukkan kisaran rata-rata bobot badan sebesar 1,47 — 1,78 kg. Bobot badan ayam buras betina maupun jantan dilokasi penelitian mempunyai variasi yang cukup besar. Rata-rata panjang tibia ayam buras betina menunjukkan kisaran 11,90 — 12,87 cm. Rata-rata panjang "shank" pada ayam buras betina dari 4 lokasi menunjukkan kisaran 6,69 — 7,43 cm. Hasil penelitian lingkar "shank" dad 4 lokasi menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata lingkar "shank" berkisar 3,31 cm — 3,79 cm. Kisaran rata-rata panjang tibia ayam jantan dari 4 lokasi adalah 12,44 — 14,12 cm. Panjang "shank" ayam buras jantan dad 4 lokasi rata-rata berkisar antara 6,99 8,34 cm. Rata-rata lingkar "shank" berkisar antara 3,54 — 4,24 cm. Bobot badan ayam buras betina maupun jantan dapat diprediksi dad panjang tibia, parijang "shank" dan lingkar "shank". Pada ayam bums betina maupun jantan di Kabupaten Kendal dan Sukoharjo banyak ditemukan wama bulu tipe "solid black" (E) dengan frekuensi 0,44dan 0,40. Hasil di Kabupaten Pemalang banyak ditemukan ayam buras yang mempunyai wama bulu tipe "solid black" (E), "birchen" (ER), "brown" (e1') dan "white" (1), dengan frekuensi yang seimbang yaitu 0,15; 0,26; 0,11 dan 0,17, sedangkan pada ayam buras jantan ditemukan bulu tipe "solid black" (E), "birchen" (ER), "brown" (eb) dan "white" (1) dan "columbian" (Co) dalam jumlah yang seimbang yaitu 0,12; 0,24; 0,12; 0,16 dan 0,12 . Di Kabupaten Brebes ayam buns betina dan jantan banyak ditemtikan wama bulu tipe "birchen" (ER) dengan frekuensi 0,74 dan 0,68. Hasil di Kabupaten Sukoharjo menunjukkan bahwa ayam buras betina dan jantan yang banyak ditemukan wama bulu tipe "solid black" dengan frekuensi 0,35 dan 0,32. Wama "shank" ayam buras betina maupun jantan di Kabupaten Kendal banyak ditemukan wama hitam (E) dengan frekuensi 0,51 dan 0,56, di Kabupaten Pemalang pada ayam betina banyak ditemukan wama "shank" kuning (Co) dengan frekuensi 0,47, sedangkan pada ayam jantan banyak ditemukan warna "shank" abu-abu (E) dan kuning (Co) dengan frekuensi yang seimbang, yaitu 0,36 dan 0,32. Warna "shank" ayam buras betina dan jantan di Kabupaten Brebes banyak ditemukan warna abu-abu (E) dengan frekuensi 0,85 dan 0,84, sedangkan pada ayam buras betina. dan .jantan di Kabupaten Sukoharjo banyak ditemukan warna "shank" kuning (Co) dengan frekuensi 0,50 dan 0,60. Bentuk jengger mawar (RRpp) banyak ditemukan pada ayam buras betina maupun jantan di Kabupaten Kendal dengan frekuensi 0,58 dan 0,64 serta di Kabupaten Sukoharjo dengan frekuensi 0,6 dan 0,56, sedangkan bentuk jengger tunggal (rrpp) banyak ditemukan di Kabupaten Pemalang dengan frekuensi 0,63 dan 0,72 dan di Kabupaten Brebes dengan frekuensi 0,88 dan 0,76.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:S Agriculture > SF Animal culture
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Animal Agriculture
ID Code:12448
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:31 May 2010 12:47
Last Modified:31 May 2010 12:47

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