ANALISIS KELAYAKAN USAHA PENGOLAHAN IKAN DALAM PEMANFAATAN TATA RUANG LAHAN PPNP DI KOTA PEKALONGAN

BUDIYANTO, BUDIYANTO (2001) ANALISIS KELAYAKAN USAHA PENGOLAHAN IKAN DALAM PEMANFAATAN TATA RUANG LAHAN PPNP DI KOTA PEKALONGAN. Masters thesis, program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Budiyanto, Properness Analysis of Fish in order to take benefit at PPN Land Lay Outing in Pekalongan City (under the supervisor of Lachmuddin Sya'rani as the Chief and Azis Nur Bambang as the Member). Preparation traders consist of 50 RTP those are fresh, salted, and boiled (preserve large fish) fish processor, which are located at Kecamatan Pekalongan than and Centered on Panjang Wetan Village, in West of TN PPNP. This business has been run for about three decades since 1930, but it has not rapidly developed yet. It occupies an approximately 8 hectare area. The processing still traditional and the environmental health and cleanliness aspects area less considered. This place is also located in a settlement, school, office complex, house of worship, and recreation area. In order to increase the fisheries sector development, based on the existed master plan, there is a 31 hectare land provided to develop fishery industry which its 1/3 production is for traditional processing production. The aims of this research are : 1. To know and to compare the properness level of preparation business of fresh, salted, and pindang fish in Pekalongan City. 2. To know and to implement the amount of the capital needed in each industry. 3. To know the wide of the land needed to structuring the fish processing zone in PPNP area. 4. To know the requirement of fish basic commodities and supporting commodities in fish processing. In order to gain those aims, the writer do : 1. Economic analysis, those area : calculate MEC, PR and Payback Period, BEP Analysis, and sensitivity analysis provided in capital data, divide the revenue and the profit and then take the conclusion by Kruskal Wallis Statistical Test; 2. Area Lay Outing Analysis with Relationship Activity Chart Method from Chart Process, to know the relationship of the activities in Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara; so that writer can know the activities lay outing synergically. By using this analysis, the requirement of area for traditional fish processing in PPNP can be planned. Based on this Economic Analysis Approaches, those are MEC, PR, and PP, we can find the business properness level of the process of salted, fish, and boiled fish, and we can also know the capital and profit gained. Based on the area lay outing Analysis Approach, that is with relationship Activity Chart, Chart Process, we can know and arrange the location. Fitted to the profit in PPNP (Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Pekalongan) area and also the area needed in fishery industry especially for traditional fish processing. Based on the Analysis above, the writer can conclude that : 1. Based on the result of MEC, PR, and PP analysis, fish processing work in the west part of Pekalongan River and PPNP (Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Pekalongan) area is suitable to be operated. Because its average MEC appoximately 200% over the valid interest rate currently, that is 18% peryear (sourse : BNI 46 Pekalongan), increase the PP or capital return level less than 1(one) year, and its PR over than 1 (one). If it is observed from the PP and PR, fresh fish work I with the capacity > 3 tons better than others with 3 months in PP and 13,55 for its PR. 2. According to BEP value, fish processing work in the west part of Pekalongan River and PPNP (Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Pekalongan) area remains profitable in 1 (one) year. 3. From the calculation of economic aspect, we can gain capital and profit peryear as the following : The biggest capital is in la fresh fish industry, whereas the smallest is in rd salted fish, both in the west part of Pekalongan River area and in PPNP (Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Pekalongan) area. Based on the capital wed, this industry is considered as a big enough industry with big in risk and profit also. However, if it is observed from the processing aspect, it remains a tradisional one. This industry uses simple equipments and the product resulted has not quality-tested yet. Nevertheless, there are many people who operate such salted fish processing, because the capital is relatively small and is products are more imperishable (for about 1 month). 4. If this industry is observed from the layonting aspect, it needs a big enough area for salted fish. Besides for storehouse, office, it also for drainage. Area requirement for these three industries in PPNP (Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Pekalongan) are the following : for salted fish is 82.900 m2 for 10 (ten) la salted fish industries and 23 (twenty-three) for rd salted fish; for the fresh one is 9.100 m2 for first 5 (five) fresh fish industry areas; 6 (six) second fresh fish industry areas, and for boiled fish is 8.000 m2 for 4 (four) areas of 1a boiled fish industry and 7 (seven) areas of rd boiled fish industry. 5. The requirements of basic commodities for fish processing are the following : salted fish in the amount of 24,455,192 kgs/year, fresh fish in the amount of 8,976,338 kgs/year, boiled fish in the amount of 7,404,301 kgs/year. Total amount is 40,835,891 kgs/year. Whereas the auctioned fish in TPI (an September 2000-2001) in the amount of 71,676,921 kgs. So it still has 30,841,030 kgs to be procested by the Pekalongan outside tradess. It means that there is a wide opened opportunities for investor in fish processing industry in PPNP (Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Pekalongan) area. 6. The supporting commodity requirements are H202, salt, firewood, and ice. In a year, salted fish industry needs 20,381.8 liters/year or approximately 102 drums of H202. Fresh fish industry needs 6,282,536.4 kgs/year or 125,650.6 bars of ice (a bar = 50 kgs) Whereas boiled fish needs 1,110,504.1 kgs salt/year or 22,200 sacks (sack = 50 kg); and 24,677.9 m3 of firewoods. Penelitian ini telah dilakukan terhadap 50 RTP terdiri dari 31 RTP pengolah ikan asin, 9 RTP ikan segar, dan 10 RTP ikan pindang yang terletak di Desa Panjang Wetan Kecamatan Pekalongan Utara sebelah Barat Sungai Pekalongan. Hal ini sudah berjalan sekitar 3 dekade yaitu sejak tahun 1970 dan sampai sekarang masih ada dan belum berkembang dengan pesat. Usaha tersebut menempati lahan seluas kurang lebih 8 Ha Pengolahannya masih bersifat tradisional dan kurang memperhatikan aspek-aspek kebersihan dan kesehatan lingkungan. Tempat tersebut juga terletak di kawasan hunian rumah penduduk, tempat sekolah, perkantoran, rumah ibadah dan tempat rekreasi. Berdasarkan mastetplan PPNP tahun 2000, disediakan lahan seluas 31 Ha untuk pengembangan industri perikanan yaitu 10 Ha untuk pengolahan ikan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk: 1. Mengetahui dan membandingkan tingkat kelayakan usaha pengolahan ikan asin, ikan segar, dan ikan pindang di lahan sebelah Barat Sungai Pekalongan dan lahan PPNP. 2. Mengetahui dan menerapkan berapa jumlah modal yang dibutuhkan untuk masing-masing usaha. 3. Mengetahui luas lahan yang dibutuhkan dalam penataan zona pengolahan ikan pada lahan PPNP. 4. Mengetahui kebutuhan bahan baku ikan dan bahan pembantu/ penunjang pengolahan ikan. Penelitian ini digunakan : 1. Analisis ekonomi yaitu menghitung MEC, PP dan PR, Analisis Break Even Point, dan Analisis Sensitivitas kemudian dilakukan uji statistik Kruskal Wallis untuk menarik kesimpulan. 2. Analisis tata letak lahan dengan metode Relationship Activity Chart dan Proses Chard, ini untuk mengetahui keterkaitan kegiatan perikanan di PPNP, sehingga dapat mengetahui tata letak kegiatan secara sinergis. Dengan analisis tersebut dapat direncanakan kebutuhan lahan khususnya untuk pengolahan ikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan hasil sebagai berikut : 1. Hasil MEC, PR, dan PP usaha pengolahan ikan di lahan sebelah Barat Sungai Pekalongan dan lahan PPNP layak dilaksanakan. Dimana rata-rata MEC ± 200% melebihi dari tingkat suku bunga yang berlaku sekarang yaitu 18% per tahun (Sumber : BNI 46 Pekalongan), sedang PP atau tingkat pengembalian modal kurang dari 1 (satu) tahun. Dan PR melebihi dari 1 (satu). Bila ditinjau dari PP dan PR maka usaha ikan segar I dengan kapasitas > 3 ton lebih baik dari usaha pengolahan lainnya dimana PP: 3 (tiga) bulan dan PR: 13,55. 2. Nilai BEP pada usaha pengolahan ikan di lahan sebelah Barat Sungai Pekalongan dan lahan PPNP masih mencapai keuntungan dalam waktu kurang 1 (satu) tahun. 3. Modal terbesar yang dibutuhkan pada usaha ikan segar I di lahan sebelah Barat Sungai Pekalongan maupun di lahan PPNP adalah Rp 315.516.399,- dan Rp 268.911.886,- sedang terendah pada ikan asin II yaitu Rp 73.975.563,- dan Rp 67.639.644, 4. Penggunaan lahan usaha ikan asin paling luas yaitu untuk gudang, kantor, dan pengeringan ikan. Kebutuhan lahan untuk ketiga usaha pada lahan PPNP adalah sebagai berikut : ikan asin seluas 82.900 m2 untuk 10 (sepuluh) pengusahaan ikan asin I (kapasitas produksi > 3 ton/hari) dan 23 (dua puluh tiga) untuk ikan asin II (kapasitas produksi < 3 ton/hari); untuk ikan segar seluas 9.100 m2 untuk 5 (lima) lahan pengusahaan ikan segar I (kapasitas produksi > 3 ton/hari); 6 (enam) lahan pengusahaan ikan segar II (kapasitas produksi < 3 ton/hari) dan untuk ikan pindang seluas 8.000 m2 untuk 4 (empat) lahan pengusahaan ikan pindang I (kapasitas produksi > 3 ton/hari); dan 7 (tujuh) lahan pengusahaan ikan pindang II (kapasitas produksi < 3 ton/hari). 5. Kebutuhan untuk bahan baku adalah sebagai berikut : ikan asin sebesar 24.455.192 kg/tahun, ikan segar sebesar 8.976.338 kg/tahun, ikan pindang 7.404.301 kg/tahun. Jumlah keseluruhan 40.835.891 kg/tahun. Sedang yang dilelang di TPI (bulan September 2000-2001) sebesar 71.676.921 kg. Sehingga masih ada sisa 30.841.030 kg yang diolah oleh pengusaha di luar Pekalongan. Hal ini terbuka lebar bagi industriawan untuk usaha pengolahan ikan di lahan PPNP. 6. Kebutuhan bahan pembantu/ penunjang berupa H202, garam, kayu bakar dan es. Untuk ikan asin I membutuhkan 11.231,9 liter/tahun atau 56 drum (ldrum = 200 It) H202. Ikan asin II : 9.149,9 liter/tahun atau 46 drum Ikan segar I membutuhkan 3.989.339,2 kg es/tahun atau 79.786,7 balok es / tahun (1 balok = 50 kg). Ikan segar H : 2.293.197,2 kg es/tahun atau 45 863,9 balok es/tahun. Ikan pindang I membutuhkan 615.006,3 kg garam/tahun atau 12.300 karung (1 karung = 50 kg), ikan pindang II : 495.497,8 kg garam/ tahun atau 9.900 kg garam/tahun. Ikan pindang I kebutuhan kayu bakar 13.666,8 m3, untuk ikan pindang H : 11.011,1 m3.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:S Agriculture > SH Aquaculture. Fisheries. Angling
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Master Program in Coastal Resource Management
ID Code:12447
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 2
Deposited On:31 May 2010 12:43
Last Modified:31 May 2010 12:43

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