PENGARUH PERMINTAAN TERHADAP PELAYANAN ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS SEDANG DI KOTA SEMARANG

Triwibowo, Triwibowo (2002) PENGARUH PERMINTAAN TERHADAP PELAYANAN ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS SEDANG DI KOTA SEMARANG. Masters thesis, Program Pendidikan Pasca sarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

Semarang transportation direct at public transportation service by moderate (contain 20 to 30 seat) bus in order to increase street capacity, reduce traffic jam within the city, and increase public accessibility. To support it, it has been done an arrangement of public transportation route network. However, it appears that there is an indication of services of advantageous and disadvantageous routes in its development. Therefore, it affects operator's service and user of service. Operator's interest expects a natural advantage, while the user of service expects easy, fast, cheap, safe, and comfortable transportation apparatus. In order to balance the two interests, it is done a research aimed at knowing to what extent the effect of demand has on moderate bus public transportation and proving that there are services of advantageous and disadvantageous routes. This research used a purposive sampling in which we took 4 advantageous routes, 4 disadvantageous routes, and 80 respondents. The types of this survey include dynamic load factor and interview with the user of service. Based on the result of data analysis, it is shown that there is a fundamental difference between services of advantageous and disadvantageous routes as follows: 1. Dynamic load factor of advantageous route above 100% range from 107% to 135%, while one of disadvantageous route range from 68,5% to 92,5%. 2. Production per apparatus of advantageous route averages 10 trip/day and the demand per trip is 61 passengers, while one of disadvantageous route is 8 trip/day and the demand per trip is 51 passengers. 3. The demand of advantageous route largely affects transportation service, such as its velocity, headway, stop period, waiting period, and proper condition, while the disadvantageous route is not affected. The effect is shown in the number of coefficient of determination. 4. The cost of apparatus operation of advantageous route is Rp. 32.239,06, -/trip and one of disadvantageous route is Rp. 34.741,84, -/trip, while the revenue of advantageous route is Rp.502.250, -/trip and one of disadvantageous route is Rp. 324.560, -/trip. 5. The evaluation of investment criteria of advantageous route shows that NPV > 1, Net B/C > I, and IRR > Social Discount Rate (proper), while one of disadvantageous route shows that NPV < 1, Net B/C < 1, and IRR < Social Discount Rate (improper). Considering the above circumstances, it is true that there are services of advantageous and disadvantageous routes of moderate bus in Semarang just as the opinion of the people of Semarang. The above condition should be improved by conducting short-term, moderate-term, and long-term activities so it could be expected that there is no difference among the two routes, which is: 1. It is necessary to ask the balance between demand and supply of advantageous route. 2. If the disadvantageous route remains in position, it is necessary to raise the tarif of transportation proportionally, and there is an effort to give subsidy in order to reduce the cost of apparatus operation. 3. It will be better to shift the disadvantageous route gradually to advantageous route while the disadvantageous route service is served by small bus (12 seat) because it is more flexible. 4. If there is an addition to transportation apparatus, it is advisable to considerate the standard load factor and the financial analysis. 5. Comprehensively rearrangement of management of public transportation. Transportasi kota Semarang diarahkan pada pelayanan angkutan umum bus sedang (kapasitas 20 sampai dengan 30 tempat duduk) dalam rangka meningkatkan kapasitas jalan, mengurangi kemacetan lalu lintas dalam kota dan meningkatkan aksesibilitas masyarakat. Untuk menunjang hal tersebut telah dilakukan penataan jaringan trayek angkutan umum, namun di dalam perkembangannnya timbul indikasi adanya pelayanan trayek basah dan trayek kering, sehingga mempengaruhi pelayanan operator dan pengguna jasa. Kepentingan operator mengharapkan keuntungan yang wajar, sedangkan pengguna jasa menginginkan sarana angkutan yang mudah, cepat, murah, aman dan nyaman. Untuk menyeimbangkan antara ke dua kepentingan tersebut, maka dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui seberapa besar pengaruh permintaan terhadap pelayanan angkutan umum bus sedang serta sekaligus untuk membuktikan adanya pelayanan trayek basah dan kering. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan purpose sampling yaitu dengan pengambilan sampel sebanyak 4 trayek basah, 4 trayek kering serta 80 responden. Kemudian jenis survei meliputi load factor dinamis dan wawancara kepada pengguna jasa. Dan hasil analisis data yang diperoleh menunjukkan perbedaan yang mendasar antara pelayanan trayek basah dan trayek kering, sebagai berikut : 1. Load factor dinamis pada trayek basah diatas 100 % antara 107 % sampai dengan 135 %, sedangkan trayek kering antara 68,5 % sampai dengan 92,5 %. 2. Produksi per kendaraan pada trayek basah rata-rata 10 rit/hari dengan jumlah permintaan per rit sebesar 61 penumpang, sedangkan trayek kering rata-rata 8 rit/hari dengan jumlah permintaan sebanyak 51 penumpang. 3. Permintaan (demand) trayek basah sangat mempengaruhi pelayanan angkutan, seperti kecepatan tempuh, headway, waktu singgah, waktu tunggu serta kelayakannya, sedangkan trayek kering tidak terpengaruh. Pengaruh tersebut dapat ditunjukkan pada besaran koefisien determinasi. 4. Biaya operasi kendaraan trayek basah Rp. 32. 239,06,- /rit, trayek kering Rp. 34.741,84,/rit, sedangkan pendapatan trayek basah Rp. 502.250r /rit, trayek kering Rp.324.560,- /rit. 5. Penilaian kriteria investasi pada trayek basah menunjukkan NPV > 1, Net B/C > 1 dan IRR > Social Discount Rate (layak), sedangkan trayek kering menunjukkan NPV < 1, Net B/C < 1 dan IRR < Social Discount Rate (tidak layak). Dengan pertimbangan tersebut di atas, ternyata opini masyarakat terbukti tentang adanya pelayanan trayek basah dan trayek kering bus sedang di Kota Semarang. Kondisi tersebut di atas sudah selayaknya perlu segera dibenahi dengan melakukan beberapa kegiatan dalam jangka pendek, jangka menengah dan jangka panjang, sehingga diharapkan tidak adanya perbedaan pelayanan trayek, antara lain : 1. Keseimbangan antara permintaan (demand) dan penawaran (supply) pada trayek basah perlu dipertahankan. 2. Apabila trayek kering dipertahankan, maka tanif angkutan perlu dinaikkan secara proposional dan diupayakan subsidi agar dapat mengurangi beban biaya operasi kendaraan. 3. Secara bertahap trayek kering sebaiknya dialihkan pada trayek basah, sedangkan pelayanan trayek kering dilayani oleh bus kecil (12 tempat duduk) karena lebih fleksibel. 4. Apabila dilakukan penambahan angkutan, agar mempertimbangkan load factor standar dan analisis finansial. 5. Penataan kembali manajemen angkutan umum secara komprehensif.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Doctor Program in Civil Engineering
ID Code:12263
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 1
Deposited On:30 May 2010 08:44
Last Modified:30 May 2010 08:44

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