PENURUNAN DERAJAT TOKSISITAS KADMIUM TERHADAP IKAN BANDENG (Chanos chanos Forskal) MENGGUNAKAN ECENG GONDOK (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) SoIms) DAN FENOMENA TRANSPORTNYA

Dewi, Nur Kusuma (2004) PENURUNAN DERAJAT TOKSISITAS KADMIUM TERHADAP IKAN BANDENG (Chanos chanos Forskal) MENGGUNAKAN ECENG GONDOK (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) SoIms) DAN FENOMENA TRANSPORTNYA. Masters thesis, Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Diponegoro.

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Abstract

The heavy metal such as Cadmium is very toxic to human health. The aim of this research is to determine the reduction of toxicities of Cd to bandeng fish (Chanos chanos Forskal ) with 5-6 cm fairish in the saline medium with and without eceng gondok (water hyacinth) as well as the phenomena of transport. The investigation of toxicities is carried out with and without eceng gondok by adding CdSO4 as a source of Cadmium. The experiment was conducted in the 36 aquarium with and without eceng gondok. The quality of water in these medium is similar, so that the determination of toxicities is only influenced by eceng gondok. Experimental was conducted statically, by acclimatization of the fish at the first step, and than passing fish on the aquarium with or without eceng gondok during 16 days. The mortalities of bandeng fish, structure of microanatomy of branchia and the concentration of Cd in the eceng gondok as well as in the water phase was measured regularly. The lethal concentration during 96 hours (LC 50 — 96h) of CdSO4 in the saline water to the bandeng fish is 224,74 ppm. By using eceng gondok as a biofilter, the LC 50-96h is 343,25 ppm. The utilization of eceng gondok reduces the toxicity of cadmium by 34,5 %. The microanatomy of branchia in the bandeng fish degraded as a function of cadmium concentration. The change of structure at branchia consist of edema at epithelium cell, epithelium cell hyperplasia and dropsy cell as well as the merger of two or more seconded lamellas. The transport of Cd in the eceng gondok is indicated by the accumulation of Cd2+ in root, in the thrunk and in the leaf, by 70 %, 16 % and 14 % successively. The model of adsorption of Cd follows the Freundlich equation, as : Root : x / m = 0,01557 C"0777 Trunk : x / m = 0,019127 C"506 Leaf : x / m = 0,0003628 Ch6346 and the total in the eceng gondok : x / m = 0,00028018 C°2791 By this result, the fitoremediation using eceng gondok could be used as an alternative solution to heavy metal contamination in the water medium. Keyword : Toxicities, Cadmium, Chanos chanos Forskal, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Fitoremediation, adsorption Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menentukan toksisitas logam berat Cd, terhadap ikan bandeng (Chanos chanos Forskal) berukuran 5 - 6 cm baik pada perlakuan dengan eceng gondok maupun tanpa eceng gondok (Eichhornia Crassipes (Mart.) Solms), menggunakan senyawa CdSO4 Metode penelitian menggunakan uji hayati (bioassay). Pengujian dilakukan secara statis, melalui tahap pemeliharaan ikan uji, tahap aklimasi, dan tahap perlakuan. Pada perlakuan dengan eceng gondok sebelum perlakuan uji toksisitas terhadap ikan dilakukan, media air uji diberi perlakuan eceng gondok terlebih dahulu selama 16 hari. Uji toksisitas menggunakan 36 akuarium; 18 akuarium tanpa perlakuan eceng gondok dan 18 akuarium dengan perlakuan eceng gondok Berdasarkan Analisis Probit diperoleh LC 50-96 jam pada perlakuan dengan eceng gondok dan tanpa eceng gondok berturut-turut sebesar 343,25 ppm dan 22 4,74 ppm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa toksisitas Cd menurun sebesar 34,50%, pada perlakuan dengan eceng gondok. Mikroanatomi branchia ikan bandeng 96 jam setelah perlakuan dengan Cd mengalami degenerasi struktural. Perubahan struktur pada branchia meliputi edema pada sel epitelium, hiperplasia sel epitelium dan sel basal serta fusi dua atau lebih lamela sekunder. Konsentrasi Cd berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas ikan bandeng, semakin tinggi konsentrasi semakin tinggi mortalitasnya. Akumulasi Cd2+ di akar, batang dan daun menunjukkan bahwa akar mengakumulasikan Cd2+ paling banyak (70%) berturut-turut batang (16%) dan daun (14%). Model persamaan konsentrasi jerapan Cd2F pada akar, batang dan daun serta pada eceng gondok secara keseluruhan mengikuti model Freundlich sebagai berikut : Akar : x/m =0,01557 Cum' Batang : x/m = 0,019127 C°'8506 Daun : x/m = 0,0003628 C1'6346 dan eceng gondok : x/m = 0,00028018 C°'2791 Fitoremediasi menggunakan eceng gondok sebagaimana dalam penelitian ini dapat dijadikan sebagai salah sate solusi untuk pengikatan logam berat kadmium sehingga lingkungan terbebas dari pencemaran. Kata kunci : Toksisitas, Kadmium, Chanos chanos Forskal, Eichhornia Crassipes (Mart.) Solms„ Fitoremediasi, Adsorpsi.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subjects:G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Divisions:Postgraduate Program > Doctor Program in Environmental Science
ID Code:11448
Deposited By:Mr UPT Perpus 5
Deposited On:25 May 2010 10:34
Last Modified:25 May 2010 10:34

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